1. what are hormones?
    messengers, controlling and coordination activities throughout the body by affecting diverse processes
  2. what do hormones control?
    growth, development, reproduction, sexual characteristics, the fluid volume, mineral balance, uses and stores carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  3. what are the classical glands of the endocrine system?
    adrenal, pituitary, pancreas, pineal, thyroid
  4. adipose tissue make what major hormone? what does that hormone do?
    leptin- surpresses appetite
  5. what is a neurohormone?
    a chemical that a neuron secretes
  6. T/F pancreas functions as both endocrine and exocrine
  7. the most non-specific lipid carrier is...
  8. where can hormone receptors be located?
    plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
  9. water soluble hormones have receptors located where?
    plasma membrane
  10. lipid soluble hormones have receptors located where?
    cytoplasm or nucleus
  11. what is upregulation of hormone receptors?
    low hormone concentration that increases the number of receptors
  12. what is downregulation of hormone receptors?
    high hormone concentration that decreases the number of receptors
  13. downregulation is also called?
  14. upregulation is also called?
  15. how are hormone receptors are made?
    nucleus - translation - transcription - golgi complex - protein synthesis - receptor - membrane
  16. steroid hormones are derived from...
  17. what are steroid hormones secreted by?
    adrenal cortex (corticosteroids) and gonads
  18. are steorid hormones water or lipid soluble?
  19. amines are dervied from...
    tyrosine and tryptophan
  20. where are amines secreted from?
    adrenal medulla and thyroid glands
  21. the amines that are secreted by the adrenal medulla are water or lipid soluble?
  22. the amines that are secreted by the thyroid glands are water or lipid soluble?
  23. what are the hormones in the adrenal medulla called?
  24. what are the 3 hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla?
    epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  25. where are the adrenal medulla receptors located?
    plasma membrane
  26. what are the 2 hormones that the thyroid gland secretes?
    T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (tetraiodothyronine)
  27. thyroid hormones are water or lipid soluble?
  28. polypeptides, proteins and glycoproteins are all derived from?
    amino acids
  29. polypeptides, proteins, and glycoproteins are secreted by what glands?
    anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, and pancreas
  30. are polypeptides, proteins, and glycoproteins water or lipid soluble?
  31. what does the antidiuertic hormone do?
    water retention and vasoconstriction
  32. what does the oxytocin hormone do?
    uterine and mammary contraction
  33. what does insulin hormone do?
    cellular glucose uptake, lipogenesis and glycogenesis
  34. what does glucagon hormone do?
    hydrolysis of stored glycogen and fat
  35. what does the hormone ACTH do?
    stimulation of adrenl cortex
  36. where is growth hormone 200 AA located?
    anterior pituitary
  37. what is synergistic?
    2 or more hormones work together to produce a additive or complementary result
  38. what is permissive?
    hormone enhances the responsiveness of a target cell to a different hormone
  39. what is antagonistic?
    1 hormone inhibits the secretion or actions of another hormone
  40. hormone concentration fluctuations are called?
    circadian rhythm
  41. where is the "master clock" located?
  42. the endocrine function of the pancreas is the...
    islets of langerhans
  43. islets of langerhorn produce what hormone in what cell?
    insulin in the beta cell
  44. alpha cells in the islets of langerhorn produces what?
  45. what is facilitated diffusion?
    high concentration to low concentration
  46. where is GLUT-1 located? 5 areas
    erythrocytes, brain, microvessels, kidneys, placenta
  47. does GLUT-1 respond to insulin?
  48. where is GLUT-4 located? 3 areas
    skeletal muscle, fat, heart
  49. does GLUT-4 respond to insulin?
  50. normal range of blood glucose concentration is...
    60-120 mL/dl
  51. when blood glucose is low in the beta cells of the pancreas what happens?
    • 1. low glucose
    • 2. metabolism slows
    • 3. ATP decreases
    • 4. potassium channels open
    • 5. cells at resting membrane potenital
    • - no insulin released
    • 6. calcuim channels closed
  52. when blood glucose is high in the beta cells of the pancreas what happens?
    • 1. high glucose
    • 2. metabolism increases
    • 3. ATP increases
    • 4. potassium channels close
    • 5. cell depolarizes and calcium channels open
    • 6. calcium entry acts as an intrcellular signal
    • 7. calcium signal triggers exocytosis and insulin is secreted
  53. what are the 4 regulators of insulin secretion?
    • 1. blood glucose concentration
    • 2. blood amino acid levels
    • 3. autonomic nervous system
    • 4. gastric inhibitory peptide
  54. does arginine and lysine increase or decrease insulin secretion?
  55. does parasympathetic system increase or decrease insulin secretion?
  56. why does the sympathetic system decrease insulin secretion?
    not responsive to insulin
  57. does gastric inhibitory peptide increase or decrease insulin secretion?
    decrease (released right away)
  58. what cells secrete glucagon?
    alpha cells of the pancreas
  59. is glucagon water or lipid soluble?
  60. what is the primary action of glucagon?
    increase blood glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis
  61. what are the 3 regulators of glucagon secretion?
    blood glucose concentration, amino acids, autonomic nervous system
  62. when blood glucose concentration decreases, what happens to glucagon?
  63. when amino acids increases, what happens to glucagon?
  64. when parasympathetic system increases, what happens to glucagon secretion?
  65. when sympathetic system increases, what happend to glucagon secretion?
  66. what are the 3 hormones in the posterior pituitary gland?
    oxytocin, ADH, peptide hormones
  67. growth hormone is water or lipid soluble?
  68. what are the 2 primary actions of GH?
    • 1. growth/anabolism in some organs
    • 2. catabolism of glycogen and triglycerides
  69. GH is secreted where?
    anterior pituitary
  70. what does the GH target?
    liver and most cells
  71. actions of GH are carried out by...
    insulin-like growth factors which functionas hormones and as autocrine and paracrine regulators
  72. factors that influence GH secretions
    deep sleep, low blood concentrations, stress, amino acids
  73. the primary action of GH for regulating blood glucose occurs where? And what are the metabolic system that go along with them?
    liver (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis) and adipose tissue (lipolysis)
  74. the secondary action of GH for regulating blood glucose occurs where? And what is the metabolic system that goes along with it?
    muscle (glycogenolysis)
  75. what are the 2 diseases known with overproduction of GH?
    gigantism (during childhood) and acromegaly (after puberty)
  76. what are the 3 zones in the adrenal gland called?
    zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis
  77. what does the zona glomerulosa in the adreal gland secrete?
  78. what does the zona fasiculata and zona reticularis in the adrenal gland secrete?
  79. what kind of hormone is cortisol?
  80. is cortisol lipid or water soluble?
  81. what effect does glucocorticoids have on the blood?
    increases free fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, amino acids
  82. what disease is known for increase cortisol?
    cushings syndrome
  83. what is the primary effect of epinephrine?
    stimulate glycogenolysis in the liver and muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue
  84. glucagon and cortisol have what effect on protein metabolism?
    increase proteolysis
Card Set
Chapters 11,12,16