Heart Sounds S1M3

  1. What is the first heart sound from
    Closing of the the mitril and tricuspid valves
  2. The second heart sound is made by
    The closure of the Pulmonary and Aortic valves
  3. If there is a split of the S1 sound what could be the result
    A conduction problem in the right bundle causing the left ventricle to fire first
  4. Physiologically which valve closes first
    The aortic, only by a fraction of a second, not usually audibly distinguishable
  5. If there is a split in the S2 what is most likley happening
    The Aortic valve is closing first (a deep breath can cause this)
  6. Where is the S2 heard best
    At the base of the heart
  7. How does inspiration affect the heart sounds
    Increased venous return to the right ventricle, it takes longer to empty, leading to an additional delay in closure of the pulmonic valve. (S2 sound)
  8. Pathological splitting of S2 may occur due to
    Conduction anomalies, such as right bundle branch block or congenital defects such as atrial septal defect
  9. Where does an S3 sound come from on the cardiac cycle
    It is at the beginning of the diastolic phase, or filling phase
  10. An S3 sound happens when a ventricle is
  11. What can cause an S3 sound
    Over filling of the heart, or a leaky aortic or mitral valve
  12. What can cause an S4 sound
    Reduced compliance of the heart
  13. When does an S4 sound occur in the cardiac cycle
    Just prior to the systolic phase
  14. In what cases can an S3 sound occur in a healthy individual
    Thin adults and children
  15. There is no physiological reason for what heart sound
  16. S4 sounds are a result of what valve contraction
  17. Chronic hypertension can cause what heart sound
  18. What do you use to make sure the sound you are hearing is the systolic sound
    Feel the patients pulse at the same time, the pulse coincides with the systolic, or first heart sound
  19. What is the difference between a murmur and a heart sound
    A murmur is due to a leaky valve, heart sounds are from valves closing at abnormal times
  20. What is happening in the heart to cause an S4
    The heart is unable to stretch further when the atrial contraction tries to put the last 10 ml's of blood in
  21. What causes an Aortic murmur
    • Aortic stenosis produces a systolic murmur because there is a larger than normal pressure difference between the ventricle and aorta during systole, which forces blood through the
    • narrowed aortic valve.
  22. Mitral regurgitation produces a systolic murmur due to
    An leaky mitral valve allowing blood to regurgitate during systole from the high pressure ventricle through a narrow opening into the low pressure atrium.
  23. Mitral stenosis produces a diastolic murmur because
    There is a larger than normal pressure difference between the atrium and ventricle during diastole, which forces blood through the narrowed mitral valve.
  24. Aortic regurgitation produces a diastolic murmur due to
    Leaky aortic valve allowing blood to regurgitate (flow backwards) during diastole from the high pressure aorta through a narrow opening into the low pressure ventricle
  25. Concentric hypertrophy
    Thickened ventricular wall with either an unchanged or reduced chamber diameter causing an S4 sound due to decreases compliance
  26. What can cause concentric hypertrophy
    An increased afterload (pressure overload) for an extended period of time like chronic hypertension or aortic stenosis
  27. Eccentric hypertrophy
    Thickening of the ventricular wall and increased ventricular chamber diameter causing an S3 sound
  28. What can cause eccentric hypertrophy
    Volume overload (preload) for an extended period of time such as mitral valve regurgitaion or aortic valve regurgitation
  29. If there is no overfilling or change in the ventricular compliance, then there will be no
    Heart sounds
  30. The SA node has how many beats a minute
  31. The AV node has how many beats a minute
  32. The bundle of His branch has now many beats per minute
  33. What is a P wave showing on an ECG
    A wave of depolarization moving through the atria
  34. What is happening in the PR segment
    A wave of depolarization moving through the AV, node, bundke of HIS, and purkinje system
  35. What is happening in the QRS section of an ECG
    Ventricular depolarization
  36. What is going on in the T phase of an ECG
    Ventricular repolarization
  37. What is the ST phase in an ECG
    The ventricles are completely depolarized
  38. In an ECG what is the difference between a segment and an interval
    A segment has no wave, an interval has to have a wave
  39. What is another name for the PR wave in an ECG
    Atrioventricular conduction time
  40. What is the normal PR interval time
    .12-.20 seconds
  41. If a PR interval time is above 20 seconds what is normally the cause
    An AV conduction block
  42. What is the normal QRS time
    Less then .10 seconds
  43. When heart cells are at rest, what charge is the membrane
    The outside is positive relative to the inside
  44. The QT interval is less then
    Half of one full interval
  45. What are the heart rates from the first cross section on
    • 300
    • 150
    • 100
    • 75
    • 60
    • 50
    • 43
Card Set
Heart Sounds S1M3