Clinical Pathology

  1. Dogs have how many recognized antigens or blood types?
    13 Recognized DEA's
  2. What are the most common types of canine blood?
    DEA: 1.2 and 1.2
  3. What types are universal donors?
    DEA: 1.2, 1.2, and 7-
  4. The canine blood 'type' is formally called what?
    DEA: Dog Erythrocyte Antigen
  5. What is the most significant DEA?
    the 'A' antigen
  6. Are dogs born with naturally occuring antibodies?
    No (This gives us one freebee shot with transfusions)
  7. Do we have to run a manual blood test or is there a product that does this?
    There is a blood typing card that takes 2 minutes to run.
  8. What can occur about 2 weeks post-transfusion?
    Hemolysis due to rejection/ mis-match blood
  9. How many blood types to felines have and what are they?
    3 types: A, B, and AB
  10. Do felines have natually occuring antibodies?
  11. What is the universal blood type for cats?
    There is none!
  12. Where do we typically see type A blood? Type B? Type AB?
    • A: most common, DSH and DLH
    • B: Some purebreed cats
    • AB: rare and random
  13. What is the most common blood type in felines?
    Type A
  14. In felines: type B has ___ antibodies against A antigens but type A has ___ antibiodies against B anitgens. The mean type __ cats will get sicker from mis-match.
    • Type B stronger
    • Type A Weaker
    • Type B will get sicker or die
  15. How does Neonatal Isoerythrolysis occur?
    When the Queen is type B and the Tom is type A
  16. Neonatal Isoerythrolysis:
    • Happens when Queen is type B, Tom is type A causesing a kitten to be type A
    • Because of naturally occuring antibodies
    • Prevented by typing the breeding pair
    • Be prepared to hand rear kittens
  17. How many blood antigens do equine have?
  18. Do equines have naturally occuring antibodies?
    No, but they ca get them from the immediate vaccines so always type the horse!
  19. How many bovine anitgens are recognized?
  20. Do bovine have naturally occuring antibodies?
    YES: Anti-J is present at birth
  21. What do we atleast do if we can't blood type?
  22. When we cross-match bovine and ovine blood, we watch for more ___ than ___
    More Lysis than Aggulination
  23. Cross-matching tests for what?
    To see if there are currently antibodies against antigens in donor
  24. What is Major-cross match?
    Tests for antibodies in recipient against antigens is donor
  25. What is Minor-cross match?
    Tests for antibodies in donor against antigens in recipient
  26. What tube do we use for cross-matching, why, and which is the best
    • Blue tube because of citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-this is the best
    • Purple tube because of EDTA
    • Green tube because of heparin-not a good choice
  27. What materials do you need for a Major Cross-match?
    Blood for both donor and recipient, 0.9% sodium chloride, slides, tubes, and centrifuge
  28. When we cross-match and look at the slides, what are we looking for?
  29. What is the major factor in the decition to do a transfution?
    Clinical Signs
  30. What are some products available for transfusions?
    • FWB: Fresh Whole Blood
    • SWB: Stored Whole Blood
    • PRBC: Packed Red Blood Cells
    • PRP: Platelet Rich Plasma
    • FFP: Fresh-Frozen Plasma
    • Cryoprecipitate and oxyglobin
  31. Besides Mis-matching what is the most common reaction due to a transfusion?
    Volume overload
  32. What are some standards that must be met by donors?
    • Vaccine and parasite control
    • Well-being and health of animal
    • Minimum of 25 kg (55lb)
    • No medications on board
    • Pass screening tests
  33. Summarize the transfusion:
    • Jugular Collection
    • Aseptic Technique
    • Single Stick
    • Large needle
  34. How long is stored blood considered safe for?
    21-35 days: loses it's viability
  35. How do we determine how much to transfuse?
    • Clinical Signs and PCV
    • Desired rise in PCV(%)*patient wt (lbs)=ml of whole blood
    • ~*~1ml/lb will raise PCV by 1%~*~
  36. At what rate do we infuse?
    • SLOWLY for first 15-20 minutes- 1ml/kg/hr
    • Never exceed 22ml/kg/hr
    • ~w/ cardio diseases never more than 4 ml/kg/hr
  37. Is rate more of an issue in normovolemic or hypovolemic?
  38. When monitoring patients during and after transfusion, what do we look at?
    vitals, attitude, MM, CRT, PCV/TP
  39. How long should owners watch for reactions after transfusion?
    3 weeks
Card Set
Clinical Pathology
Clin Path; Blood Typing