1. Define the Nervous system
    A network of trillions of cells organized to form the body's rapid control system.
  2. Define the Central Nervous System
    Consists of the brain and spinal column
  3. Define the Peripheral Nervous System
    "Everything Else" ie peripheral nerves
  4. List the four main functions of the nervous system
    • 1. Detect and Transmit
    • 2. Analyze information
    • 3. make a decision (may be conscious or unconscious)
    • 4. Execute a response
  5. Describe the composition of the Reflex Pathway
    • 1. Afferent (sensory) pathway- PNS-CNS
    • 2. Efferent (motor) pathway- CNS to organs
    • 3. Interneuronal pathways- Within the CNS only
  6. Define cranial nerves
    12 pairs of peripheral nerves originating primarily from the brain
  7. Define spinal nerves
    messages to and from the brain via the spinal cord
  8. S.A.I.D.?
    Sensory. Afferent. Input. Dorsal.
  9. M.O.V.E.
    Motor. Output. Ventral. Efferent
  10. List the four main regions of the spinal cord
    Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral
  11. Define Visceral Sensory
    Information coming from the internal organs
  12. Define autonomic efferent
    Information going to the internal organs
  13. Define Somatic Sensory
    Information coming from touch, pressure, temperature etc.
  14. Define Somatic motor
    Information going to the skeletal muscle
  15. What is a Dermatome?
    The area of skin innervated by sensory axons of nerves
  16. What is a Myotome?
    A collection of muscle fibers innervated by the motor axons of each nerve
  17. Starting from top to bottom, what is the arrangement of sensory, motor, and autonomic nuclei within the spinal cord?
    • somatic sensory
    • visceral sensory
    • autonomic efferent
    • somatic motor
  18. What is the purpose of this arrangement?
    This separation prevents cross-talk within the spinal cord
  19. What are ascending tracts?
    Sensory information form the spinal cord to the brain
  20. What are descending tracts?
    Information from the brain to the spinal cord
  21. What is the purpose of ascending and descending tracts?
    Linking the peripheral nerves to the brain
  22. Explain how one side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
    Pathways form the PNS crossover to the opposite side of the CNS
  23. List the four lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
    • Frontal
    • Parietal
    • Occipital
    • Temporal
  24. Name the 2 classes of cholinergic receptors
    • Nicotinic
    • muscarinic
  25. What do Nicotinic receptors do?
    Open Na+/K+ channels (ionotropic)
  26. What do muscarinic receptors do?
    G-protein coupled receptors (metabotropic)
  27. Name the five common adrenergic receptor sub-types
    • alpha 1
    • alpha 2
    • beta 1
    • beta 2
    • beta 3
  28. Where are the alpha 1 receptors found?
    most vascular smooth muscle/pupils (NE>E)
  29. Where are the alpha 2 receptors found?
    CNS, platelets, autoreceptors, some vascular smooth muscle and adipose tissue (NE>E)
  30. Where are the beta 1 receptors found?
    CNS, cardiac muscle and kidneys (NE=E)
  31. Where are the beta 2 receptors found?
    some blood vessels, respiratory tract, uterus (E>NE)
  32. Where are the beta 3 receptors found?
    adipose tissue (NE=E)
  33. Sympathetic nervous system?
    Fight or flight
  34. Parasympathetic nervous system?
    Rest and digest
  35. Explain dual innervation
    an area can be stimulated by SNS or PSNS
  36. What is the structure of the sympathetic nervous system?
    • origin in the thoracic/ lumbar
    • Ganglia found close to the spinal cord (short pre, long post)
  37. What is the structure of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    • Origin in the brain and the spinal cord
    • Ganglia lie close to target organ (long pre, short post)
  38. List the neurotransmitters released in the pre- and post- ganglionic cells along with their receptors of the sympathetic nervous system
    • pre- Ach-Cholinergic nicotinic receptors
    • post- NE-adrenergic receptors
  39. List the neurotransmitters released in the pre- and post- ganglionic cells along with their receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system
    • Pre- Ach-Cholinergic nicotinic receptors
    • Post- Ach- cholinergic muscarinic receptors
  40. Define/describe the neruoeffector junction
    synapse between an efferent neuron and its effector(target) organ
  41. Describe the structure of the somatic motor division
    A single neuron starts in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and ends in target tissue (skeletal muscle)


    CNS-Ach-Nicotinic-skeletal muscle
  42. Describe the neuromuscular junction
    Between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle
  43. Describe the motor end plate
    specialized region of a skeletal muscle fiber's plasma membrane containing Ach nicotinic receptors
  44. Define a motor unit
    Group of muscle fibers and the single motor neuron that controls them
Card Set
Exam 2 HSP, PNS study guide