Intellectually disabled/autism

  1. What is a developmental disability
    • loss of function brought on by pre-natal or pos-natal events - in which the predominant disturbance is to the acquisition of cognitive, language, motor or social skills
    • e.g. mental retardation, autism, learning disorders, ADD
    • not all people with developmental disability have intellectual disability
  2. What is a disability
    absent or diminished ability in one of more areas
  3. What is a handicap
    social construct in which social and environmental factors prevent a person with a disability from making full use of their residual abilities to function independently in society
  4. What is a carer
    parent or other person who provides support and care - ideally a network or >1 carer
  5. What is Global Developmental Delay (GDD)
    • child's milestones are delayed in many areas - physical, tactile, proprioceptive, cognitive and emotional
    • delay implies catch up is possible
    • labelling is stigmatising
  6. What is an intellectual handicap
    social construct in which social and environmental factors prevent a person with an intellectual handicap from functioning independently in society
  7. Special needs of the intellectually disabled
    • management problems - compliance problems for preventive care and treatment
    • increased disease risk - caries, perio, trauma
    • coincidental medical problems - epilepsy, cerebral palsy, CHD, GOR
    • dentofacial growth and development
  8. Role of Dental Care team
    • prevention of disease
    • understanding of current management strategies employed at home/school
    • understand some disabilities and dental manifestations and that a medical co-morbidity complicates dental care
  9. Why do Gastronomy Feeding
    • chronic aspiration pnesumonia risk
    • poor muscle co-ordination
    • low caries risk
    • orally defensive
    • *gastronomy feeding has a characteristic calculus biuld up, risk of aspiration during treatment
  10. The diagnosis of autism
    • no specific test
    • diagnosis of exclusion
    • often normal until 24-36 mo
    • requires multidisciplinary team evaluation
  11. clinical features of autism
    • communication: slow/not at all, use of words w/o attaching meaning, gestures rather than words, short attention span
    • social interaction: alone > others, little interest in friends, less responsive to social cues (smile/eye contact)
    • sensory impairment: unusual reaction to physical sensations (over sensi to touch, under sensi to pain), auditory hypersensitivity, sight/hearing/touch/pain/smell/taste can be affected to diff degrees
    • play: lack of spontaneous/imaginative play, doesnt imitate others/play pretend games
    • behaviours: overactive/very passive, tantrums, focus, apparent lack of common sense, aggressive/violent/self injury, echolalia
Card Set
Intellectually disabled/autism
oral health care for intellectually disabled/autistic children