a/p endocrine 1

  1. 4 Types of Tissues
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  2. What 2 systems control homeostasis
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
  3. What is the difference (in terms of effects) between the endocrine and nervous system?
    • The endocrine system results may take hours
    • The results are longer lasting
  4. What are the two way hormones are transported
    • Circulating Hormones: travel through blood
    • Local Hormones: Act locally on neighboring cells (after secretion into intersitial fluid)
  5. Name the 5 glands that secrete hormones
    • Pituitary
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Adrenal
    • Pineal
  6. Name the 11 structures that secrete hormones
    Hypothalmus, Thymus, Pancreas, Gonads, Kidneys, Stomach, Liver, Small intestine, Skin, Heart, Placenta
  7. What makes up a Hormone Receptor
    • Proteins on the surface of the interior or exterior of cells
    • May be 2000-10000 receptors on a cell
  8. How do hormones effect cells
    Only cells that have a receptor can be effected
  9. What is Down-regulation
    excess hormones leads to a decrease in receptors
  10. What is up-regulation
    Deficiency of homrone leads to increase in receptors
  11. What are the two types of local hormones?
    • Paracrines: Act on neighboring Cells
    • Autocrines: Act on the cell that secreted them
  12. What are the two types of hormones
    • Lipid soluable (need a transport protein to make it water soluable) (Ex: steriods, thyroid hormones)
    • Water soluable (blood is mainly water) (Ex: peptide and protein hormones)
  13. What are the 5 mechanisms of hormone action
    • Influence a cells normal activity
    • Alter a gene expression of a cell (production of a protein)
    • Activate / Deactivate Enzymes
    • Change permeabilty of a membrane
    • Induce secretory activity
  14. What is an example of how different cells respond different to the same hormone
    • Insulin at liver: stimulates glycogen synthesis
    • Insulin at Adipose Cells: Stimulates triglyceride synthesis (store fat)
  15. What 3 principals determine cell responsiveness
    • Concentration of hormone
    • Quantity of receptors
    • Influence of other hormones
  16. What are the three types of hormone interactions
    • Permissive: Action of a hormone at or on a cell requires cells exporsure to another cell
    • Syngergistic: Effect of 2 hormones is greater than the hormones acting alones
    • Antagonistic: 2 hormones with oppostie effects
  17. What are the 3 controllers of hormone secretion?
    • Chemical changes in the blood
    • Other hormones
    • signal from nervous system
Card Set
a/p endocrine 1
endocrine system notes