Cardiovascular Questions

  1. Cardiovascular system has two major divisions. What are they?
    • Pulmonary Circulation
    • Systemic Circulation
  2. What Small but Significant Changes gnerate a small elecrical pulse in the SA node?
    • Concentration changes in
    • Potassium
    • Sodium
    • Calcium
  3. The SA node impulse reaches the AV junction in the atria and is briefly delayed. Why?
    • To allow time for the atria to contract fully.
    • Adds 30% more blood volume to the ventricles before the ventricles contract.
  4. How do the Atria Fill?
    • When the heart is at rest the atria fill passively.
    • The right atria fills from the venae cavae.
    • The left atria fills from the pulmonary veins.
  5. Stroke volume depends on what 3 factors?
    • Amount of blood filling the heart.
    • Natural strenght of the heart muscle (contractility).
    • Resistance to blood flow in the circulatory system.
  6. Arterioles contain what type of muscle?
    • Smooth muscle cells.
    • Allows for vasodilation and vaso constriction.
    • Major role play in BP
  7. When are coronary arteries nourished?
    Heart tissue is perfused primarly during the resting portion of the cardiac cycle (diastole).
  8. Non-Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
    • Family Hx of heart disease.
    • Man or woman after menopause.
    • Increase age (risk increases with age).
    • African American Ethnicity.
  9. Modifiable traditional risk factors include:
    • High BP
    • Cigarette/tobacco use
    • High blood cholesterol
    • Physical inactivity
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • Stress in daily living.
    • Hormone replacement.
  10. The 3 stages of high BP are:
    • Prehypertension-systolic pressure of 120-139, diastolic of 80-89.
    • Stage 1-systolic pressure of 140-159, diastolic of 90-99.
    • Stage 2- greater than 160 or diastolic greater than 100
  11. Two body functions that can cause high BP include
    • Changes in sodium excretion in kidneys.
    • Arterial smooth muscle contractility caused by changes in calcium absorption.
  12. What is Syndrome X (metabolic syndrome)?
    A genetc metabolic disorder involving diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cnetral distributedobesity and elevated blood lipids.
  13. Stress can manifest into:
    • High BP
    • Angina
    • MI
  14. Common factors of inadequate tissue perfusion include:
    • Pain
    • Changes in skin
    • Changes in cognition
    • Edema
    • Thrombus formation
  15. What is Ruber?
    Bluish-red skin coloration caused by hyperemia or increased blood flow.
  16. What skin changes occure with alteration in perfusion?
    • hair loss
    • discolored skin
    • thickened nails
    • shiny dry skin
    • clubbed fingers or toes
    • skin lesions
    • dermatitis
    • ulcerations
  17. What 3 things can decrease the heart's ablility to pump effectivley?
    • Muscle damage
    • vavle dysfunction
    • conduction problems
  18. Two factors of Valve Dysfunction are:
    • Stenosis-narrowing
    • regurgitation-incomplete closing
  19. What changes in blood cause serious alteration in cardiovascular function ?
    • changes in serum potassium levels cause dysrhymias.
    • Increase sodium intake cause increase blood volume-overworks heart.
    • Acidotic pH decreases ablilty of hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
  20. What is polycythemia?
    • Decrease in heart pumping results in thickier more viscous blood.
    • Blood flow that is moved slowly through vessels making the heart work harder.
  21. Causes of venous pooling include:
    • right-sided heart failure.
    • ineffective venous valves.
  22. NIH Stroke Scale consists of what 5 areas:
    • Wakefulness
    • Vision
    • Movement
    • Sensation
    • Speech/language
  23. Assessing Peripheraal circulationi by checking:
    • Femoral (groin)
    • Popliteal (behind knee)
    • Posterior tibial (ankle)
    • Dorsalis pedis (foot)
    • Apical
    • Radial
    • Capillary refill
  24. What information does a CBC provide?
    • White blood cells.
    • Platelets.
    • Sedimentation rate.
    • Number of red blood cells.
    • Hemoglobin.
    • hematocrit.
  25. What are the cardiac enzymes that indicate tissue damage?
    • Serum levels of myoglobin
    • CK-MB
    • Troponin
  26. What test are used to study kidney function studies?
    • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    • Creatinine
  27. What are the Diagnostic Test that yield information on cardiac function and blood flow.
    • Radiography-establish size and shape of heart.
    • Electrocardiography-records hearts electrical impulses.
    • Exercise Testing-response to cardiovascular stress.
    • Echocardiography-Ultrasonic waves to diagnose structural heart defects.
    • Cardiac Catheterization-Catheters inserted into the vein or artery directly into the heart.
    • Angiography-radiopaque dy to outline blood vessels.
    • Electrophysiology-assesses electrical conduction or automaticity in the heart.
Card Set
Cardiovascular Questions
Chpater 36