1. Forms of energy
    kinetic energy is energy of motion; potential energy is stored energy; chemical energy is potential energy contained in chemical bonds of organic compounds; mechanical energy is type of kinetic energy
  2. First Law of Thermodynamics
    Law of conservation of energy; Energy cannot be created or destroyed; Energy can be changed from one form to another form
  3. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    when energy changed from one form to another, there is loss of usable energy; energy transformation increases entropy of the universeEntropy is measure of disorder or randomness
  4. what increases When glucose (more organized) is broken down into CO2 + H2O
    Entropy, potential energy decreases and one less stable compound is changed into two smaller stable compounds
  5. ALL living organisms dependent on outside source of energy from
    the sun
  6. Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations
  7. Cellular metabolism
    sum of all chemical reactions that occur in cellCatabolism (breaking down) and Anabolism (building up)
  8. Free energy
    amount of energy available to do work
  9. Exergonic reaction
    releases energy
  10. Endergonic reaction
    requires energy
  11. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate):
    is carrier of energy in cells
  12. what is common energy currency for all cells; composed of Adenine + Ribose (pentose sugar) + 3 phosphate groups
  13. Exergonic reaction
    produces ATP
  14. Endergonic reaction
    requires ATP to proceed
  15. Functions of ATP
    chemical work; transport work; mechanical work
  16. Metabolic Pathways and Enzymes
  17. Metabolic pathway
    is series of linked reactions
  18. Enzyme
    is a biological catalyst that speeds up chemical reaction
  19. Enzymes usually proteins
    participates in reaction but is NOT used up by reaction
  20. Enzymes are highly specific
    they increase rate of a reaction
  21. Reactants in enzymatic reaction are
    Substrates of the reaction
  22. Energy of Activation
    amount of energy that reactants must absorb before reaction will start
  23. what decrease's amount of energy required before chemical reaction proceeds
  24. Function of enzymes
    active site of enzyme forms complex with substrate
  25. Induced Fit Model of enzyme action
    Enzymes form Enzyme-Substrate complex
  26. Many enzymes named for substrate
    suffix of –ASE means enzyme
  27. Factors Affecting Enzymatic Speed
    Substrate concentrationTemperature and pHEnzyme activationEnzyme inhibitionEnzyme Co-factors; Co-factors = Coenzymes = Vitamins
  28. Oxidation
    Reduction and Flow of Energy
  29. Oxidation refers to loss of Electrons
    same as loss of Hydrogen ions
  30. Reduction is gain of Electrons
    same as gain of Hydrogen ions
  31. Redox Reaction
    refers to coupled Oxidation – Reduction reaction
  32. Oxidation
    does NOT always involve oxygen in reaction
  33. Photosynthesis:
    6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy → Glucose + 6 O2
  34. Photosynthesis:
    CO2 gains Hydrogen; CO2 is reduced and changed into glucose; H2O loses Hydrogen; H2O is oxidized and changed into O2
  35. Cellular Respiration
    Glucose + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
  36. Cellular Respiration
    Glucose loses Hydrogen; Glucose is oxidized and changed into CO2; O2 gains Hydrogen; O2 is reduced and becomes H2O
  37. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration are coupled reactions
    together are example of Redox reaction
Card Set
Exam chap 6