1. What is the apoptosis?
    programmed cell death
  2. Where is areolar tissue in the epidermis?
    underlying all epithelia, between muscles, passageways for nerves and blood vessels
  3. What are the primary classes of tissue?
    • ~epithelial
    • ~connective
    • ~muscular
    • ~nervous
  4. What type of tissue is found in the esophagus & adult vagina?
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous
  5. What type of tissue is found in the esophagus?
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • nervous
    • muscle
  6. What are the functions of adipose tissue?
    • energy storage
    • insulation
    • cushioning
  7. What is perichondrium?
    a sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the hylaine cartilage
  8. What tissue gives the external ear it's shape?
    elastic cartilage
  9. What's the difference btw serous glands & mucous glands?
    • Serious glands-produce thin, watery secretion, while
    • Mucous glands-produce mucin that absorb water to form the sticky secretion, mucus
  10. What's the amount of extracellular matrix occupies vs the cells in connective tissue?
    The matrix which is composed of fibrous proteins & ground substance is what connective tissue is based upon since they're widely seperated.
  11. What type of cells are the epidermis composed of?
    • stem cell
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • tactile (merkel) cells
    • dendritic cells
  12. What are the layers included in the skin?
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  13. Where do we find thick skin?
    stratum corneum
  14. Are the margins of the lips red or flesh?
    Red. The hemoglobin which is red pigment; is shown through the skin, where the blood capillaries come closer to the surface & be seen vividly
  15. What is cyanosis?
    blueness from deficiency of oxyvgen in the circulating blood.(cold weather)
  16. What is the definition of erythema?
    redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels (anger,sunburn,embarassment)
  17. What is jaundice?
    yellowing of the skin & sclera due to excess of billirubin in blood. (liver disease)
  18. What is pallor?
    pale color from lack of blood flow
  19. What is albinism?
    a genetic lack of melanin
  20. What is a hematoma?
    a bruise (visible clotted blood)
  21. What are the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial?
    • stratum basale
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum corneum
  22. What is the tube that hair grows in?
    the hair follicle
  23. Parts of the hair from deepest to skin surface
    • Dermal papilla
    • Hair bulb
    • Hair matrix
    • Apocrine sweat gland
    • Hair root
    • Bulge
    • Hair receptor
    • Hair cortex
    • Hair medulla
    • Piloerector muscle
    • sebaceous gland
    • epithelila root sheath
    • connective tissue sheath
    • hair shaft
    • Image Upload 2
  24. skin layout
    Image Upload 4
  25. What glands are responsible for cooling the skin?
    merocrine gland
  26. When do the apocrine sweat glands develop?
    until puberty
  27. What layer of skin is the rate of mitosis the fastest?
    stratum basale, mitosis require lots of oxygen & nutrients in which the deep cell can get from blood vesels in the dermis
  28. Which type of tissues in the body are avascular?
    • epithelial
    • cartilage(connective)
  29. Which connective tissues are branched?
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
    • collagen fibers
  30. What is the difference btw cornified & noncornified?
    • cornified-is the conversion of keratin, usually found on the skin surface, while
    • noncornified-lacks a surface of dead layer & is usually moist
    • both usually found in stratified squamous epithelia tissue
  31. What is the function of a dipole?
    it absorb impact and leave the layer of the compact bone unharmed
  32. How many bones is the mandible in the fetus?
    2, broken into left & right halves
  33. How many phalanges are in each finger?
    3 in each digit & 2 in the thumb
  34. Define ligament.
    holds bone together at the joints; attach muscle-muscle
  35. What happens to epiphyseal plates at ages 18-20?
    it is depleted and bones can no longer grow longer & a epiphyseal line appears where the plate was.
  36. What structure of the skull articulate with the spinal column?
    the cranium
  37. What structure does the pituitary gland sits?
    In the deep pit of the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica, in the sphenoid bone of the skull.
  38. What type of tissue is most likely to have cilia?
  39. What two type of cells found in the nervous tissue?
    • neurons
    • neuroglia, or glial cells
  40. What cells are associated with touch?
    tactile cells
  41. What causes stretch marks?
    stretching of the skin due to obesity or pregnancy which tears collagen fibers & produce striae
  42. Histological arrangement of osseous tissue
    • osteogenic cells-located in endosteum,give rise to osteoblasts, multiply continually
    • osteoblasts-bone forming cell
    • osteocytes-trapped osteoblast in the matrix,homeostasis of calcium & ph ions
    • osteoclasts- bone dissolving cell on bone surface
  43. Where is the epiphyses located?
    ends of long bone (head)
  44. What type of cartilage do most bone develop?
    articular cartilage (hylaine)
  45. What kind of cells do osteoblast and osteoclasts develop from?
    osteogenic cells
  46. What is the inorganic matter percentage og bone?
    • 85% hydroxyapatite
    • 10% calcium carbonate
    • other material-fluoride,potassium,magnesium
  47. What hormone maintain calcium homeostasis in adults?
    pth hormone
  48. What happens to bone with vitamin d defficiency?
    abnormal softness in bone known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
  49. Define osseous tissue
    bone as a connective tissue, which matrix is hardened by decompsition of calcium phosphate & other minerals
  50. Where does the hemopoiesis occur?
    in red bone marrow
  51. Define avulsion.
    the forcible tearing away of a body part by trauma or surgery
  52. What is a canaliculi?
    slender channels that are interconnected with the lacunae; they help osteocytes contact the processes from their neighbors
  53. What cells are resposible for the breakdown of bone?
  54. Whats the diff btw appositional growth and interstitial growth of bone?
    • interstitial-bone increase in length, while
    • appositional-bone increase in width
  55. What is the class of bones found in the forearm?
    • ulna
    • radius
  56. What bones are found in the antebrachium?
    • ulna
    • radius
  57. What are the paranasal sinuses?
    • fronatal
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • maxillary
  58. what bone contain the internal and external acoustic meatuses?
    temporal bone
  59. Which skull bones are paired?
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • maxillae
    • palatine
    • zygomatic
    • lacrimal
  60. Where is the lambdoid suture located and what does it seperate?
    in the back of the head. occipital & parietal bones
  61. What are the process of the temporal bone?
    • zygomatic-extends anterioly to form part of zygomatic arch
    • styloid-provides attachment for muscles of the tongue, pharynx, & hyoid bone
    • mastoid-where u can palpate as a lump behind earlobe
  62. Can you palpate the occpital condyles of a living person?
  63. What bone is fractured if a person was strangled?
    hyoid bone
  64. What nerve tract is damaged if theres a fracture of the ethmoid bone?
    the olfactory nerve that is associated with the sense of smell
  65. Which vertebrae has a dens?
    the cervical's axis
  66. Can cells have two nucleus?
    Yes during mitosis, the splitting & duplication of cells
  67. Can mutations change the amino acid sequence of a protein?
  68. What does the nucleus envelope and the mitochondria have in common?
    both are double membranous units
  69. What are your nitrogen based purines?
    • double ring
    • Guanine
    • Adenine
  70. What are your nitrogen based pyrimidnes?
    • single ring
    • Uracil
    • Thymine
    • Cytosine
  71. What are the components of DNA?
    • guanine
    • adenine
    • thymine
    • cytosine
  72. What is found in rna, that isnt in dna?
  73. What is the function of dna helicase?
    opens short segment of helix, repication is point of 2 strands
  74. What is DNA wrapped around in the nucleosome?
    histones, core of proteins
  75. What happens in anaphase?
    enzyme split 2 chromatids apart a centomere
  76. How do malignant tumors differ from benign tumors?
    • benign- connective tissue capsule, slow growth, stay local, potentially lethal, while
    • malignant- is cancerous, unencapsulated, fast growing, metastic(spreading)
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