PSY 200 Test 2

  1. Stimulus
    Any detectable input from the environment
  2. Absolute threshold
    the minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect
  3. Just Noticeable Difference
    the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect (shades of paint)
  4. Signal detection theory
    the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes- Which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity.
  5. Hit
    detecting signals when they are present
  6. miss
    detecting signals when they are not present
  7. correct rejection
    not detecting signals when they are absent
  8. false alarm
    detecting signals when they are not present
  9. subliminal perception
    the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness- subliminal messages
  10. Sensory adaptation
    A gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation- smell of pot smoke starts to fade

    Built in process that keeps people tuned in to the changes rather than the constants
  11. Light
    a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave- moving at the speed of light

    Amplitude(height)- brightness wavelength(distance between peaks)- color
  12. Retina
    The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain.
  13. Cornea
    Transparent "window" at the front
  14. Iris
    controls amount of light reaching the retina
  15. Pupil
    the opening in the center of the iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eye

    Bright Light- Constrict

    Dim Light- Dilate
  16. Lens
    the transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina
  17. Nearsightedness
    close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry- Light from distant objects focuses in front of the retina

    eyeball to long
  18. Farsightedness
    A vision deciency in which distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry- Light from close objects focuses behind the retina.

    eyeball to short
  19. Cones
    Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision- concentrated most heavily in the retina
  20. Fovea
    tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual activity is greatest at this spot. (when you want to see something sharply, centered on the fovea)
  21. Rods
    Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision- greatly outnumber cones in the periphery of the retina

    density of rods greatest just outside the fovea
  22. Dark adaptation
    process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination
  23. Light adaptation
    Process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
  24. Optic disk
    A hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye (known as the blindspot)
  25. Lateral antagonism
    Occurs when neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells (allows the retina to compare the light falling in a specific area against general lighting.
  26. Receptive field- vision
    the retinal are that, when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell.
  27. Optic Chiasm
    the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain.
  28. Dorsal stream (the where pathway)
    Processes information about motion and depth- moves on to areas of parietal lobe.
  29. Ventral stream (the what pathway)
    Processes information about color and form- moves on to areas of temporal lobe
  30. Trichromatic theory of color vision
    The human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities.
  31. Color Blindness
    Only have two types of color receptors instead of three
  32. Complementary colors
    Colors that produce gray tones when mixed together.
  33. Short wavelength cones
  34. Medium wavelength cones
  35. Long wavelength cones
  36. Perceptual set
    A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way (creates a slant in how someone interprets sensory input)
  37. Inattentional blindness
    Failure to see visible objects or events because one's attention is focused elsewhere.
  38. Bottom up processing
    A progression from individual elements to the whole
  39. Top down processing
    a progression from the whole to the individual elements
  40. Subjective contours
    involves the perception of contours where none actually exist
  41. Phi Phenomenon
    The illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession (like a movie or cartoon)
  42. Figure and ground
    Figure is the thing being looked at- ground is the background against which it stands
  43. Proximity
    Things that are near one another seem to belong together
  44. Closure
    You may complete figures that actually have gaps in them
  45. Similarity
    People tend to group stimuli that are similar.
  46. Simplicity
    Most general principle of Gestalts- Idea that people tend to group elements that combine to form a "good figure".
  47. Continuity
    The principle reflects peoples tendency to follow whatever direction they've been led.
Card Set
PSY 200 Test 2
PSY 200 Test 2