Medical Term

  1. Alveol/o
    Air sac, alveolus
  2. Bronch/o
    Airway, bronchus
  3. Hem/o, Hemat/o
  4. Laryng/o
    Voice box, larynx
  5. Lob/o
    A rounded part, lobe
  6. Muc/o
  7. Nas/o
  8. Ox/o
  9. Pharyng/o
    Throat, pharynx
  10. Phragm/o, Phragmat/o
  11. Pleur/o
    Pleura, rib
  12. Pneum/o, Pneumon/o, Pneumat/o
    Air, lung
  13. Pulmon/o
  14. Rhin/o
  15. Sept/o
    Wall, partition; putrefying
  16. Sinus/o
  17. Thorac/o
    Chest, thorax
  18. Trache/o
    Windpipe, trachea
  19. Respiratory System
    Brings oxygen into the bloodstream, through which it is transported to all body cells.
  20. Respiration
    The process of providing cells with oxygen.
  21. Lower Respiratory Tract
    The lower portion of the respiratory system, consists of the trachea in the chest, the bronchial tree, which branches extensively throughout the lungs, the tiny air sacs within the lungs known as alveoli, and the lungs themselves.
  22. Pulmonologist
    Pulmonary specialist
  23. Otolaryngologist (ENT)
    Disease of the pharynx is treated by a nose and throat specialist.
  24. Oncologist
    Cancer specialist
  25. Respiratory Therapist
    A person who has received special training in the operation of equipment used to diagnose or treat breathing problems.
  26. A-, an-
    Without or absence of
  27. Brady-
  28. Dys-
    Bad, abnormal, painful, or difficult
  29. Epi-
    Upon, over, above, on top
  30. Eu-
    Normal or good
  31. Hyper-
    Excessive, abnormally high, or above
  32. Hypo,
    Deficient, abnormally low, or below
  33. Tachy-
    Rapid or fast
  34. Bronch/o
  35. Hem/o
  36. Laryng/o
    Voice box, larynx
  37. Orth/o
  38. Rhin/o
  39. Thorac/o
    Chest, thorax
  40. -algia
    Condition of pain
  41. -capnia
    Condition of carbon dioxide
  42. -dynia
  43. -emia
    Condition of blood
  44. -oxia
    Condition of oxygen
  45. -phonia
    Condition of sound or voice
  46. -pnea
  47. -ptysis
    To cough up
  48. -rrhagia
    Condition of profuse bleeding, hemorrhage
  49. -spasm
    Sudden involuntary muscle contraction
  50. -staxis
  51. Acapnia
    The absence of carbon dioxide
  52. Anoxia
    The absence of oxygen
  53. Aphonia
    Absence of voice
  54. Apnea
    The inability to breathe or inhale
  55. Bradypnea
    Abnormal slowing of the breathy rhythm
  56. Bronchospasm
    A narrowing of the airway caused by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the tiny tubes known as bronchioles within the lungs.
  57. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
    • A repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase of deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing, and apnea.
    • A sign of nervous dysfunction or congestive heart failure.
  58. Dysphonia
    They symptom of a hoarse voice.
  59. Dyspnea
    The symptom of dfficult breathing, usually caused by a respiratory disease or cardiac disorder.
  60. Eupnea
    Normal breathing rhythm.
  61. Epistaxis (Rhinorrhagia)
    • Nosebleed
    • Can be a sign of high blood pressure, a nasal sinus infection, inhalation of a toxi irritant or particle, or a blow to the face.
  62. Hemoptysis
    The symptom of coughing up and spitting out blood.
  63. Hemothorax
    • Literally means "chest blood"
    • It is the pooling of blood within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs.
  64. Hypercapnia
    Excessive levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  65. Hypocapnia
    Deficient or abnormally low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  66. Hyperpnea
    • The sign of abnormally deep breathing or an abnormally high rate of breathing.
    • Common among patients suffering from the respiratory disease emphysema.
    • Also a common symptom of heart failure and anxiety (panic) attacks.
  67. Hyperventilation
    The sign of abnormally rapid breathing is more common among patients experiencing asthma.
  68. Hypopnea
    Abnormally shallow breathing
  69. Hypoventilation
    A reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body's gas exchange demands.
  70. Hypoxemia
    Abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood is a sign of a respiratory deficiency.
  71. Hypoxia
    The sign of abnormally low levels of oxygen throughout the body.
  72. Laryngospasm
    The closure of the glottis, the opening into the larynx, due to muscular contractions of the throat.
  73. Orthopnea
    The limited ability to breathe when lying down, which becomes relieved when sitting upright.
  74. Paroxysm
    Refers to a sudden, sharp reoccurrence of symptoms or a convulsion.
  75. Sputum
    • An expectorated (coughed out from the lungs) matter.
    • Contains mucuss, inhaled particulates, and sometimes pus or blood.
  76. Tachypnea
    Rapid breathing
  77. Thoracalgia (Thorcaodynia)
    The symptom of pain in the chest region
  78. A-
    without or absence of
  79. Epi-
    Upon, over, above, or on top
  80. Atel/o
  81. Bronch/o, Bronchi/o
  82. Carcin/o
  83. Coccidiioid/o
    Coccidioides immitis, organism
  84. Coni/o
  85. Cyst/o
  86. Embol/o
    A plug
  87. Fibr/o
  88. Glott/o
    Opening into the windpipe
  89. Laryng/o
    Voice box, larynx
  90. Myc/o
  91. Nas/o
  92. Pharyng/o
    Throat, pharynx
  93. Pleur/o
    Pleura, rib
  94. Pneum/o, Pneumon/o
    Lung or air
  95. Pulmon/o
  96. Py/o
  97. Rhin/o
  98. Sinus/o
  99. Sphyx/o
  100. Sten/o
  101. Thorac/o
    Chest, thorax
  102. Tonsill/o
    Almond, tonsil
  103. Trache/o
    Windpipe, trachea
  104. Tubercul/o
    Little swelling
  105. -al, -ic
    Pertaining to
  106. -ectasis
    Expansion or dilation
  107. -genic
    • pertaining to
    • producing, formation, or causing
  108. -ia, -ism, -osis
    condition of
  109. -itis
  110. -oma
  111. Asphyxia
    • The absence of respiratory ventilation, or suffocation.
    • "Condition of without pulse"
  112. Asthma
    • A condition of the lungs that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs.
    • Produces the symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and frequent coughing during an episode, the frequency of which varies with every patient.
  113. Atelectasis (Collapsed Lung)
    • The alveoli in the lungs normaly retain a small amount of air even during a forced expiration, which prevents them from collapsing.
    • Trauma or disease has disabled this protective mechanism and caused the alveoli to collapse, preventing air from entering.
  114. Bronchiectasis
    • An abnormal dilation of the bronchi.
    • It is most commonly seen in infants and young children and is relatively rare among adults.
  115. Bronchitis
    Inflammation of the bronchi.
  116. Bronchogenic Carcinoma
    An aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi.
  117. Bronchopneumonia (Lobar Pneumonia)
    • An acute inflammatory disease involving the bronchioles and the alveoli.
    • Often occurs in a lobe of a lung.
  118. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • An obstruction of air flow to and from the lungs is a consequences of several forms of pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis, bronchospasm, cystic fibrosis, and emphysema.
    • General term for these forms of pulmonary obstruction.
  119. Coccidioidomycosis
    A fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and other organs.
  120. Valley Fever
    Caused by inhaling spores of the fungal pathogen.
  121. Coryza (Rhinitis)
    • The common cold is caused by a virus that infects the upper respiratory tract causing local inflammation.
    • It is usually acute
  122. Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
    • A viral infectious disease that is relatively common among infants and young children produces a characteristic hoarse cough with a sound resembling the bark of a dog.
    • Cough results from the acute obstruction of the larynx.
  123. Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
    • A hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and elsewhere.
    • Literally means "condition of fibrous cysts (bladders)"
    • Causes difficulty breathing because of the dense mucus that obstructs the airways.
  124. Emphysema
    A chronic lung disease characterized by the symptoms of dyspnea, a chronic cough, formation of a barrel chest due to labored breathing and a gradual deterioration caused by chronic hypoxemia.
  125. Epiglottitis
    • Inflammation of the epiglottis
    • Usually caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the throat to the epiglottis and can be very serious in children due to the danger of airway obstruction.
  126. Laryngitis
    • Inflammation of the larynx.
    • It is characterized by the symptom of dysphonia.
  127. Legionellosis (Legionnaire's Disease)
    A form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella Pneumophilia.
  128. Lung Cancer (Adenocarcinoma of the Lung)
    • It arises from the soft tissues of the lung.
    • Most common cause is chronic exposure to tobacco smoke.
  129. Nasopharyngitis
    • Inflammation of the nose and pharynx.
    • It may be caused by an allergic reaction or bacterial or viral infection.
  130. Pertussis
    • An acute infectious disease characterized by inflammatio of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing.
    • Commonly known as whooping cough because of the noise produced at the end of a cough when the larynx spasms, producing a long inspirational noise.
  131. Pharyngitis
    • Inflammation of the pharynx.
    • Commonly called "sore throat"
  132. Pleural Effusion
    • Refers to the leakage of fluid.
    • Fluid leaks into the pleural cavity.
    • It usually occurs as a response by the body or infection of the pleural membranes.
  133. Pleuritis (Pleurisy)
    Inflammation of the pleural membranes.
  134. Pleuropneumonia
    Inflammation of the pleural membranes and the lungs
  135. Pneumoconiosis
    • Inflammation of the lungs, when caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles.
    • "condition of dusty lungs"
  136. Pneumonia
    • Inflammation of soft lung tissue (excluding the bronchi) that results in the formation of an exudate (fluid) within alveoli.
    • Is caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens. which trigger the inflammatory response.
  137. Pneumonitis
    An inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause.
  138. Pulmonary Edema
    The accumulation of fluid within the lungs outside the alveoli.
  139. Pneumothorax
    • The abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity.
    • It is caused by penetrating injury to the chest or severe coughing and leads to atelectasis.
  140. Pulmonary Edema
    • The accumulation of fluid within the tiny air sacs within the lunds (the alveoli) is a response to infection or injury.
    • Most common cause is cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure.
    • It is often associated with pneumonitis.
  141. Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
    • A blockage in the pulmonary circulation by a blood clot.
    • It is a complication to an injury or surgery elsewhere in the body.
  142. Pyothorax (Empyema)
    The presence of pus in the pleural cavity.
  143. Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    A respiratory disease that is characterized by atelectasis.
  144. Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS) (Hyaline Membrane Disease; HMD)
    • Affects newborns
    • It is caused by insufficient surfactant, a substance produced by alveolar cells that prevents atelectasis.
  145. Adult (or acute) Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
    • Affects adults
    • It is caused by severe lung infections or injury
  146. Rhinitis
    • Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity.
    • One of the clinical terms for the common cold.
  147. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    • A severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes acute lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and atelectasis.
    • It is usually caused by the influenza virus and can become fatal.
  148. Sinusitis
    • Similiar to rhinitis
    • An inflammation of the mucous membranes.
    • It affects the nasal cavity and also the paranasal sinsuses that are located within the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones of the skull.
  149. Tonsillitis
    Inflammation of one or more tonsils
  150. Tracheitis
    • Inflammation of the trachea.
    • It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that travels downward from the larynx.
  151. Tracheostenosis
    Inflammation leads to a narrowing of the trachea.
  152. Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Infection of the lungs by bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    • "Condition of little swelling"
  153. Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
    A generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx).
  154. Anti-
    Against or opposite of
  155. Endo-
  156. Dilat/o
    To widen
  157. Ox/i
  158. Spir/o
  159. -al, -ary
    pertaining to
  160. -centesis
    Surgical puncture
  161. -ectomy
    Surgical removal or excision
  162. -gram
    a record or image
  163. -graphy
    recording process
  164. -ion
  165. -meter
    measuring device
  166. -metry
  167. -oid
  168. -plasty
    Surgical repair
  169. -scopy
    Process of viewing
  170. -stomy
    Surgical creation of an opening
  171. -tomy
    incision or to cut
  172. Acid-fast Bacilli Smear (AFD)
    • A clinical test performed on sputum to identify the presence of bacteria.
    • Is frequently used with chest X-rays to confirm a diagnosis of tuberculosis.
  173. Adenoid
    • A pharyngeal tonsil
    • "resembling a gland"
  174. Adenoidectomy
    In some cases, a chronically inflammed adenoid must be surgically removed to avoid complications including obstruction of the nasopharynx.
  175. Antihistamine
    A therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines.
  176. Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs)
    A clinical test on arterial bloo to identify the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  177. Aspiration
    A proedure to remove fluid, air, or foreign bodies with suction.
  178. Auscultation
    A procedure that involvs listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination, often with the aid of a stethoscope.
  179. Bronchodilation
    • A procedure that uses a bronchodilating agent in an inhaler to reduce bronchial constriction in an effort to open the airway and improve breathing.
    • "process of widening the airway"
  180. Bronchography
    The X-ray imaging of the bronchi.
  181. Bronchogram
    Bronchography that produces an X-ray image of the bronchi and uses a contrast medium to highlight the bronchial tree.
  182. Bronchoscopy
    The evaluation of the bronchi using a flexible fiber -optic tube mounted with a small lens at one end and attached to an eyepiece and computer monitor at the other end.
  183. Chest CT Scan
    • Diagnostic imaging of the chest by a computed tomography (CT) instrument.
    • The procedure is used to diagnose respiratory tumors, pleural effusion, pleuritis, and other diseases by providing 3-D images of the thoracic cavity.
  184. Chest X-Ray (CXR) Chest Radiograph
    An X-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose tuberculosis, tumors, and other conditions of the lungs.
  185. Ears, Nose, and Throat Specialist (ENT)
    A physician specializing in the treatment of upper respiratory tract disease.
  186. Endotracheal Intubation
    Insertion of a noncollapsible breathing tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth.
  187. Endotracheal
    Pertaining to within the trachea
  188. Expectorant
    • A drug that breaks up mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel the mucus.
    • "spit out of the chest"
  189. Incentive Spirometry
    • A valuable postoperative breathing therapy.
    • it involves the use of a portable spirometer to promote deeper breathing to improve lung expansion after an operation.
    • If self self-administered reduces pulmonary complications and helps to correct atelectasis.
  190. Laryngectomy
    • Surgical removal of the larynx.
    • It is often required as a treatment for laryngeal cancer and is usually followed by training or insertion of a device to enable the patient to communicate orallly.
    • These patients have a permanent tracheostomy.
  191. Laryngoscopy
    A diagnostic procedure that uses a modified endoscope, called a laryngoscope, to visually examine the larynx.
  192. Laryngotracheotomy
    A surgical incision into the larynx and trachea is usually performed to provide a secondary opening for inspiration and expiration, allowing air to bypass the upper respiratory tract.
  193. Lobectomy
    Surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung is sometimes required as a treatment for lung cancer, if the tumor is isolated in one lobe.
  194. Mechanical Ventilation
    • A medical treatment to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress.
    • It provides assisted breathing using a ventilator, which pushes air into the patient's airway.
    • Is often used by a respiratory therapist in a clinical setting or by an emergency medical technician at the site of injury and in transit to a hospital.
  195. Nebulizer
    A device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lungs with the aid of deep inhalation.
  196. Oximetry
    The procedure that measures oxygen levels in the blood using an instrument called an oximeter.
  197. Pulse Oximeter
    A small, handheld oximeter that provides a digital readout of oxygen levels by noninvasive physical contact with a finger.
  198. Pleurocentesis (Thoracentesis or Thoracocentesis)
    • The surgical puncture and aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity.
    • it's a diagnostic procedure
  199. Pneumonectomy
    • Surgical removal of a lung.
    • It is performed as a radical treatment for lung cancer, in which tumors have progressed throughout one lung.
  200. Pulmonary Angiography
    • A diagnostic procedure that evaluates the blood circulation of the lungs.
    • In this procedure, X-ray images are taken of the lungs following the injection of a contrast medium into the pulmonary circulation.
    • "Recording of blood vessel pertaining to lung"
  201. Pulmonary Function tests
    A series of diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through the use of spirometry .
  202. Pulmonologist
    • A physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower respiratory tract, particularly the lungs.
    • Pulmonary specialist
  203. Resuscitation
    • Artificial respiration that is used to restore breathing
    • Most common form is cardiopulmonary
  204. Rhinoplasty
    Surgical repair of the nose.
  205. Septoplasty
    A type of rhinoplasty during which deviation of the nasal septum is corrected to improve breathing.
  206. TB Skin Test (PPD Skin Test or Mantoux Skin Test)
    A simple skin test to determin the presence of a tuberculosis infection.
  207. Thoracentesis (Pleurocentesis or Thoracocentesis)
    Surgical puncture using a needle and syringe into the thoracic cavity to aspirate pleural fluid for diagnosis or treatment.
  208. Thoracostomy
    • Surgical puncture into the chest cavity, usually for the insertion of a drainage or air tube.
    • "Placing a chest tube"
  209. Thoracotomy
    • A surgical incision into the chest wall.
    • The procedure is often used to treat pleural effusion by draining the excess fluid from the pleural cavity
  210. Tracheoplasty
    Surgical repair of the trachea.
  211. Tracheostomy
    Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea, usually for the insertion of a breathing tube.
  212. Tracheotomy
    Surgical incision into the trachea.
  213. Ventilation-Perfusion Scanning (VPS)
    Lung Scan
    V/Q Scan
    • A diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine, or the use of radioactive material., to evaluate pulmonary function.
    • It can identify pulmonary embolism and pulmonary edema.
  214. ABGs
    Arterial blood gases
  215. ARDS
    Adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome
  216. AFB
    Acid-fast bacilli
  217. CF
    Cystic fibrosis
  218. COPD
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  219. CPR
    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  220. CXR
    Chest X-ray
  221. HMD
    Hyaline membrane disease
  222. LTB
  223. NRDS
    Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  224. PE
    Pulmonary embolism
  225. PPD
    Purified protein derivative
  226. RDS
    Respiratory distress syndrome
  227. SARS
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome
  228. TB
  229. URI
    Upper respiratory infection
  230. VPS or V/Q Scan
    Ventilation-perfusion scanning
  231. Abdomin/o
    Abdomen, abdominal cavity
  232. An/o
  233. Append/o or appendic/o
  234. Bil/i
  235. Cec/o
    Blind intestine, cecum
  236. Chol/e
    Bile, gall
  237. Choledoch/o
    Common bile duct
  238. Col/o, Colon/o
  239. Cyst/o
  240. Dent/o
  241. Duoden/o
    Twelve, duodenum
  242. Enter/o
    Small intestine
  243. Esophag/o
    Gullet, esophagus
  244. Gastr/o
  245. Gingiv/o
  246. Gloss/o; Lingu/o
  247. Hepat/o
  248. Ile/o
    To oil, ileum
  249. Jejun/o
    Empty, jejunum
  250. Or/o, Stomat/o
  251. Pancreat/o
    Sweetbread, pancreas
  252. Peps/o, pept/o
  253. Periton/o
    Stretch over, peritoneum
  254. Proct/o
    Rectum or anus
  255. Pylor/o
  256. Rect/o
  257. Sial/o
  258. Sigm/o
    The letter S, sigmoid colon
  259. Digestive System
    Converts food into a form the body can use for energy, growth, and repair.
  260. Digestion
    The breakdown of food particles into their small subunits, is the primary function of the digestive system.
  261. Other Important Functions of the Digestive System
    • Absorption of nutrients, which occurs across the wall of the small intestine.
    • Regulation of sugar levels in the blood, which achieved by endocrine cells of the pancreas and by liver cells
    • Conservation of water, which is provided by water absorption across the walls of the small and large intestines.
  262. Digestive Flora
    Bacteria in the GI tract
  263. A-
    without or absence of
  264. Dia-
  265. Dys-
    Bad, abnormal, painful, or difficult
  266. Re-
  267. Flux/o
  268. Gastr/o
  269. Halit/o
  270. Peps/o, Pept/o
  271. Phag/o
    Eat, swallow
  272. Steat/o
  273. -algia
    condition of pain
  274. -dynia
  275. -emesis
  276. -emia
    condition of blood
  277. -ia, -osis
    condition of
  278. -megaly
    abnormally large
  279. -rrhea
    Excessive discharge
  280. Aphagia
    • The inability to swallow
    • "Without eating or swallowing"
    • "Inabiltity to swallow"
  281. Ascites
    • An accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that produces an enlarged abdomen.
    • A sign of liver disease, congestive heart failure, or both.
  282. Constipation
    • Infrequent or incomplete bowel movements are characteristics of this condition.
    • It is a sign of an intestinal disorder.
  283. Diarrhea
    • An opposite conditon to constipation, in which frequent discharge of watery fecal material occurs.
    • "Excessive discharge through" and may be caused by an improper diet, but it is more commonly a sign of infectino by virus, bacteria, or protozoa.
  284. Dyspepsia
    • A common symptom of digestive difficulty that literally translates to "condition of difficult digestion"
    • Commonly called indigestion, it is accompanied by stomach or esophageal pain or discomfort.
  285. Dysphagia
    • Difficulty in swallowing.
    • It often accompanies a sore throat, although its chronic form can be a sign of oral or pharyngeal cancer.
  286. Flatus
    • It is used to describe the presence of gas, or air, in the GI tract.
    • Gas is expelled through the anus as flatulence
  287. Gastrodynia (Gastralgia)
    The symptom of stomach pain.
  288. Halitosis
    Bad breath
  289. Hematemesis
    Vomiting blood
  290. Hepatomegaly
    • A sign of liver disease is abnormal enlargement of the liver.
    • "abnormally large liver"
  291. Jaundice
    • A yellowish-orange coloration of the skin, sclera of the eyes, and deeper tissues.
    • It is a sign of liver disease.
    • Results from the accumulation of bile pigments in the bloodstream that are normally removed by the liver.
  292. Nausea
    A symptom of dizziness that includes an urge to vomit.
  293. Reflux
    • A backward flow of material in the GI tract, or regurgitation.
    • "Back flow"
  294. Steatorrhea
    • Abnormal levels of at in the feces is a sign of digestive malfunction.
    • "Excessive discharge of fat"
  295. An-
  296. Mal-
  297. Cheil/o
  298. Cirrh/o
  299. Diverticul/o
  300. Lip/o
  301. Lith/o
  302. Orex/o
  303. Pancreat/o
  304. Parot/o
    Parotid gland
  305. Polyp/o
    Small growth
  306. Rect/o
  307. -ectasis
    expansion or dilation
  308. -itis
  309. -malacia
  310. -oid
  311. -penia
    abnormal reduction in number or deficiency
  312. -ptosis
  313. -sis
    state of
  314. -y
    Process of
  315. Anorexia Nervosa
    • An emotional eating disorder in which the patient avoids food due to a complusion to become thin in appearance.
    • "Nervous cause of condition of no appetite"
    • It results in extreme weight loss and nutritional deficiencies and can become fatal if left untreated.
  316. Appendicitis
    Inflammation of the appendix
  317. Bulimia
    • A common eating disorder involving repeated gorging with food followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse.
    • "Binging and purging"
  318. Cheilitis
    Inflammation of the lip.
  319. Cheilosis
    A general condition of the lip, which often includes splitting of the lips and corners of the mouth, usually resulting from vitamin B deficiency.
  320. Cholecystitis
    • Inflammation of the gallbladder.
    • It is usually caused by stones lodged within the gallbladder, which are commonly called gallstones.
  321. Choledochitis
    Inflammation of the common bile duct.
  322. Cholelithiasis
    A generalized condition of stones lodged within the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  323. Cirrhosis
    • A chronic, progressive liver disease characterized by the gradual loss of liver cells and their replacement by fat and other forms of connective tissue.
    • "Condition of orange"
  324. Colitis
    • Inflammation of the colon
    • Often includes excessive peristalitc contractions, mucus prodution, and cramping pain.
  325. Ulcerative Colitis
    Chronic bleeding of the colon wall, forms bloddy diarrhea.
  326. Colorectal Cancer
    • Cancer of the colon often includes cancer of the rectum.
    • Life-threatening disease.
  327. Polyp
    An abnormal mass of tissue that projects from the wall of the organ into the interior like a mushroom, to become an aggressive, metastatic tumor.
  328. Crohn's Disease (Regional Ileitis, Regional Enteritis)
    • A chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract, most commonly the ileum of the small intestine, that involves ulcerations, scar tissue formation, and thickening adhesions of the organ wall.
    • Believed to be an inherited condition
    • It is a form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, IBD
  329. Diverticulosis
    The presence of diverticula is often without symptoms or with mild bowel discomfort
  330. Duodenal Ulcer
    An ulcer, or erosion, in the wall of the duodenum of the small intesting.
  331. Dysentery
    • An acute inflammation of the GI tract that is caused by bacteria, protozoa, or chemical irritants.
    • Characterized by severe diarrhea and can become a life-threatening disease by causing dehydration.
  332. Enteritis
    Inflammation of the small or large intestine.
  333. Esophagitis
    • Inflammation of the esophagus
    • It is often caused by acid refulx from the stomach, which burns the esophageal lining to produce the inflammation.
  334. Esophagomalacia
    Chronic esophagitis may lead to a morbid softening of the esophageal wall.
  335. Food-Borne Illness
    Ingestion of food contaminated with harmful bacteria can cause symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting, even in otherwise healthy peopel, but in the very young, elderly, and immunosuppressed it can become life threatening.
  336. Botulism
    The life-threatening disease caused by clostridium botulinum.
  337. Gastrectasis
    Abnormal stretching, or dilation of the stomach.
  338. Gastromegaly
    An abnormal enlargement of the stomach
  339. Gastric Cancer
    • Stomach cancer
    • An aggressive, metastatic cancer arising from cells lining the stomach.
  340. Gastric Ulcer
    • An ulcer, or erosion, in the wall of the stomach.
    • It is often caused by an imbalance between the secretion of the protective mucous layer and the secreation of hydrochlorix acid in the stomach, which is often the result of infectio nby the bacterium Helicobactor pylori.
  341. Gastritis
    Inflammation of the stomach.
  342. Gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the small intestine and stomach.
  343. Gastroduodenitis
    If the first segment of the small intestine, the duodenum .
  344. Gastroenterocolitis
    Inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon all at once.
  345. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
    A recurring backflow, or reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus.
  346. Gastromalacia
    The softening of the stomach wall may occur during advanced stages of stomach cancer and other chronic diseases of the stomach.
  347. Giardiasis
    Infection by the intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis or Giardia lamblia produces symptoms of diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and vomiting. The disease is usually contracted by drinking contaminated water.
  348. Gingvitis
    Inflammation of the gums, or gingiva. It is usually caused by chronic bacterial activity at the junction of the teeth and gums.
  349. Glossitis
    An inflammation of the tongue often caused by exposure to allergens, toxic substances, or extreme heat or cold.
  350. Glossopathy
    Any disease of the tongue.
  351. Hemorrhoids
    A varicose, or swollen, condition of the veins in the anus produces painful swellings that may break open and bleed. "Resembling leakage of blood"
  352. Hepatitis
    A viral-induced inflammation of the liver.
  353. Hepatoma; Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
    A tumor arising from cells within the liver.
  354. Hiatal Hernia
    • Protrusion of the cardiac portion of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.
    • It causes the symptom of heartburn that results from the movement of stomach acids into the esophagus.
  355. Inguinal Hernia
    • A type of digestive system hernia
    • A protrusion of a small intestinal segment through the abdominal wall in the inguinal region.
  356. Direct Inguinal Hernia
    Occurs in males and is a protrusion into the scrotal cavity.
  357. Umbilical Hernia
    Occurs when a small intestinal segment enters through a tear in the membrane covering the abdominal wall at the umbilical (navel) region.
  358. Strangulated Hernia
    Requires medical intervention to avoid loss of the affected organ.
  359. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
    • A general term that includes the conditions ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
    • A syndrome affecting different patients in different ways.
    • It includes a wide specttrum of conditions and symptoms that range from chronic diarrhea and enteritis to ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease.
  360. Intussusception
    Infolding of a segment of the small intestine within another segment and results in a reduction of intestinal motility.
  361. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    • A chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances of large intestinal (bowel) function without clear physical damage.
    • Episodes include abdominal pain caused by intestinal muscle spasms and flatus, and are often associated with fluctuations between diarrhea and constipation.
  362. Lactose Intolerance
    A lack of this enzyme results in the uncomfortable symptoms of flatus and diarrhea when dairy foods are consumed.
  363. Malabsorption Syndrome
    • A disorder that is characterized by difficulty absorbing one or more nutrients.
    • It can have severe consequences, depending on the nutrients that cannot be absorbed.
  364. Lipopenia
    An example of malabsorption syndrome is the inability to absorb fat molecules, resulting in a life-threatening disease.
  365. Pancreatitis
    Inflammation of the pancreas.
  366. Parotitis
    Inflammation of one or both parotid glands.
  367. Peptic Ulcer
    An erosion into the inner wall of an organ along the GI tract.
  368. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the extensive membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominpelvic cavity and covers most of its organs.
  369. Polyposis
    • The presence of many polyps.
    • Condition of polyps
    • Usually occurs in the colon or rectum of the large intestine, where it increases the risk for colorectal cancer.
  370. Polyp
    Any abnormal mass of tissue that projects inward from the wall of a hollow organ.
  371. Proctitis
    Inflammation of the anus, and usually the rectum as well.
  372. Proctoptosis
    A drooping, or prolapse, of the rectum.
  373. Volvulus
    A severe twisting of the intestine that leads to obstruction.
  374. Acid/o
    A solution or substance with a pH less than 7
  375. Ile/o
    to roll, ileum
  376. Pylor/o
  377. Vag/o
    Vagus nerve
  378. -al, -ic
    Pertaining to
  379. -centesis
    Surgical puncture
  380. -ectomy
    Surgical removal
  381. -emetic
    pertaining to vomiting
  382. -gram
    a record or image
  383. -spasmodic
    pertaining to a sudden, involuntary contraction
  384. Abdominocentesis
    A surgical puncture through the abdominal wall to remove fluid.
  385. Antacid
    An agent that reduces the acidity of the stomach cavity.
  386. Antiemetic
    • A drug that prevents or stops the vomiting relfect.
    • "pertaining to against vomiting"
  387. Antispasmodic
    A drug that reduces peristalsis activity in the GI tract, which arrests the muscular spasms involved in diarrhea.
  388. Antidiarrheal
    May also be used to treat the symptoms of diarrhea, but usually by increasing water absoprtion in the colon while decreasing spasms.
  389. Appendectomy
    The surgical removal of the appendix.
  390. Cathartic
    An agent that stimulates strong waves of peristalsis of the colon
  391. Laxative
    An agent that causes mild waves of peristalsis.
  392. Cheilorrhaphy
    The procedure of suturing a lip
  393. Cholecystectomy
    The surgical removal of the gallbladder
  394. Cholecystography
    The procedure of producing an X-ray image of the gallbladder
  395. Cholecystogram
    The X-ray image of the gallbladder
  396. Choledocholithotomy
    The surgery that involves the removal of one or more obstructive gallstones from the common bile duct.
  397. Cleft Palate
    A congenital defect in which the bones supporting the roof of the mouth, or hard palate, fail to fuse during fetal development, leaving a space between the oral cavity and nasal cavity
  398. Colectomy
    Surgical removal of a segment of the colon.
  399. Colostomy
    Surgical creation of an opening performed on the colon. The new opening is referred as a stoma.
  400. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)
    A clinical lab test performed to detect blood in the feces.
  401. Gastrectomy
    Surgical removal of part of the stomach or, in extreme cases, the entire organ.
  402. Gastric Lavage
    • A cleansing procedure in which the stomach is irrigated with a prescribed solution.
    • Performed after ingestion of a toxic substance or drug overdose or to remove irritants before after surgery.
  403. Colonic Irrigation
    An irrigation procedure may be performed on the colon to remove unwanted substances.
  404. Gavage
    The process of feeding a patient through a tube inserted into the nose that extends through the esophagus to enter the stomach.
  405. GI Endoscopy
    Visual examination of the GI tract that is made possible by the use of an endoscope.
  406. Esophagoscopy
    Which examines the esophagus
  407. Gastroscopy
    Which views the stomach
  408. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    Examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
  409. Laparoscopy
    Which examines the abdominal cavity.
  410. GI Series
    A common term applied to several diagnostic techniques that provie radiographic examinationof the GI tract.
  411. Barium Enema (BE)
    The admintration of barium sulfate into the color or rectum for a lower GI series (LGI) of X-rays.
  412. Gingivectomy
    Surgical removal of diseased tissue in the gums, or gingiva.
  413. Glossorrhaphy
    An injury that involves a severe bite through the tongue often requires surgery to close the wound with sutures.
  414. Hemorrhoidectomy
    Surgical removal of hemorrhoids
  415. Ileostomy
    • A surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall and into the ileum of the small intestine.
    • Is performed to establish an alternative anus for the passage of feces, usually following a radical colectomy in which the entire colon.
  416. Laparotomy
    The surgical procedure that involves an incision through the abdominal wall, often from the based of the sternum to the pubic bone.
  417. Polypectomy
    The surgical removal of polyps
  418. Pyloroplasty
    Surgical repair of the pylorus region of the stomach, which may include repair of the pyloric valve.
  419. Stool Culture and Sensitivity (SCS)
    • A test that may be performed if a pathogen is a suspected cause of a disease that affects the GI tract.
    • includes obtaining stool (fecal) samples, using the sample to grow microorganism in culture, and identifying the microogranisms to determine which antibiotics will effectively kill the pathogens.
  420. Vagotomy
    The surgical dissection of branches of the vagus nerve may be performed in an effort to reduce gastric juice secretion as a treatment for chronic gastric ulcers.
  421. BE
    Barium enema
  422. EGD
  423. FOBT
    Fecal Occult Blood Test
  424. GI
  425. GERD
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  426. IBD
    inflammatory bowel disease
  427. IBS
    Irritable bowel syndrome
  428. LGI
    Lower GI series
  429. N&V
    Nausea and vomiting
  430. SCS
    Stool Cultures and sensitivity
  431. UGI
    Upper GI series
Card Set
Medical Term
9 and 10