clin path lab urine

  1. color and appearance, specific gravity, chemical tests, microscopic examination
    four categories of routine urinalysis
  2. refrigeration
    satisfactory method for preserving urine. should be stored for no longer than 6 hours. amorphous crystals can form
  3. freezing
    satisfactory method for chemical analysis only.
  4. formaldehyde
    prevents microbial growth and aids in preservation of cells and casts. cannot be used for urine cultures
  5. toluene
    very difficult to work with. may interfere with ketone determination
  6. phenol
    one part phenol to nine parts urine
  7. sedi-stain
    most commonly used stain for urine
  8. yellow-brown urine
    urine color - when shaken has a greenish yellow foam at the top indicating the presence of bile pigments
  9. red-reddish brown
    urine color- RBCs indicating hematuria or hemoglobinuria
  10. brown black
    urine color- equine urine when left sitting too long
  11. blue-green
    urine color- drug induced
  12. specific gravity
    specific gravity indicates the concentration of dissolved solids in the urine
  13. 1.013 to 1.063
    specific gravity normals
  14. 6-7
    normal pH values
  15. average of top and bottom of meniscus, you need 9-10 ml, requires too much urine
    reading a urinometer
  16. glucose
    test will be false positive when under stress and in cold samples.
  17. bilirubin
    small amount is normal in dogs, cats should be negative
  18. ketones
    normal urine is negative, end products of metabolism. false positive seen in red samples and aspirin
  19. blood
    tests for red blood cells, hemoglobin and myoglobin. lysed in alkaline urine
  20. pH
    will see increased results if read from the refrigerator, so read at room temp
  21. protein
    normal urine should be negative, proteinuria could be a sign of renal disease
  22. TNTC
    too numerous to count
  23. 10-15 ml for 3-5 minutes at 1000-2000 rpms
    urine centrifuge
  24. squamous
    large, flattened cells. abundant cytoplasm and a small round nucleus. derived from bladder or urethra or vagina
  25. transitional large and caudate
    come from the bladder, granular
  26. renal
    small round epithelial, large nucleus, from renal rubules
  27. small, moderate or large
    amount of sediment is noted as...
  28. present or not present
    bacteria reported as....
  29. hyaline casts
    colorless, semitranparent, dissolved in alkaline urine, 0-2/40x is normal
  30. granular casts
    fine or coarse, contain disintegrated tubular epithelial cells, 0-1/40x is normal
  31. epithelial casts
    cast formed from epithelial cells of the renal tubules, rare
  32. waxy
    cast that are yellow or grayish, smooth appearance, broad and highly refractile, broken off square edge with cracked and serrated edge, renal failure
  33. fatty
    cast with few too many refractile globules colorless, renal disease
  34. blood
    casts are deep yellow to orange and appear as a homogenous cylindrical mass
  35. RBC
    casts RBCs present, yellow to orange, renal hematuria due to nephritis, glomerulonephritis, renal trauma, rare
  36. WBC
    casts contain WBC that adheres to the hyaline matrix, renal infections, few or many can be seen in a cast
  37. mucus, mucous thread
    long, narrow, wavy and twisted ribbon-like in appearance, normal in the horse
  38. amorphous urates, uric acid crystals, calcium oxalate, hippuric acid
    normal crystals in acidic urine (<7 pH)
  39. amorphous urates
    grossly appear pink and microscopically appear yellow, small fine granules, heat will dissolve them
  40. uric acid crystals
    yellow or red brown, rhombic or irregular plates, prisms, diamonds, rosettes, or oval with paired ends. NaOH will disolve them, not common unless in dalmations
  41. calcium oxalate crystals
    colorless and envelope (octahedral). small squares with two diagonal lines, can also look like dumbbells, HCl will dissolve them, often seen with ethylene glycol poisoning (monohydrate form) diabetes, liver and renal disease
  42. hippuric acid
    yellow-brown or colorless elongated prisms, plates or needles. dissolve with water or acetic acid, rarely seen, no clinical significance
  43. amorphous phosphates
    colorless granules in masses, can be dissolved by acetic acid, no clinical significance
  44. amorphous phosphates, triple phosphates, calcium carbonate, ammonium urate (biurates)
    normal crystals seen in alkaline urine (<7 pH)
  45. triple phosphate
    colorless prisms, 'coffin-lid', struvite, will dissolve in acetic acid, frequently found in normal urine, can also form uroliths.
  46. calcium carbonate
    small colorless spheres or ovals and also as dumbbells. can appears like amorphous phosphates but with more distinguished granules, common in horses, acetic acid will dissolve them
  47. ammonium urate (biurates)
    brownish-yellow speres, 'thorn-apples' dissolved by acetic acid and are abnormal in freshly voided urine, liver disease or porto-systemic shunts.
  48. bilirubin crystals, leucine, tyrosine, cystine, sulfonamide (sulfadiazine), cholesterol
    abnormal types of crystals
  49. bilirubin
    crystals are yellow or dark red needles, plates or granules, found in acid urine, liver disease
  50. leucine
    crystals that look like grapefruits, highly refractile, yellow-brown, liver disease, dissolved in hot acetic acid and hot alcohol
  51. tyrosine
    crystals colorless fine needles, highly refractile, acidic urine, dissolved in ammonium hydroxide and HCl
  52. cystine
    crystals and hexagonal plates with unequal sides, highly refractile, acidic urine, rapidly destroyed by bacteria
  53. sulfonamide (sulfadiazine)
    yellow-brown, asymmetrical, striated sheaves and round forms, acidic urine
  54. cholesterol
    crystals that are large, flat, transparent plates, usually notched, acidic and neutral urine, severe kidney disease
Card Set
clin path lab urine
clin path lab urine