Molecular Final

  1. What are epitiops?
    Binding site of antibodies
  2. What are antibodies?
    Molecules that identify antigens (intruders)
  3. What are antigens?
    Foreign bodies that elicit the immune system
  4. What are the primary lymphocytes?
    • T cells (60%) (developed in bone marrow and matures in the thymus)
    • B cells
    • NK cells
  5. What are the 4 types of T-cells?
    • Cytotoxic (CD8 killer T cells) kill cancer
    • Helper (CD4)
    • Suppressor- shut down killer T cells after is does it's job
    • Memory- stays in body for second encounter (make T cells)
  6. What are the 3 types of B cells?
    • Naïve B cells
    • Plasma cells (effector B)
    • Memory B cells- stay for second encounter (make plasma cells)
  7. What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
    • IgA -mucus, tears, saliva, breast milk
    • IgD- activates B cell
    • IgE- binds to mast cells (causes release of histamine)
    • IgG- found in plasma and involved in long term immunity
    • IgM- found on the surface of the B cell
  8. What is a monoclonal antibody?
    One specific antibody for one antigen
  9. What is a polyclonal antibody?
    Mixture of different antibodies with different specificity
  10. What is DNA sequencing?
    Reading of the DNA code in orderly or sequential manner
  11. What are the 3 steps DNA sequencing?
    • Generating different length of DNA fragments of DNA we want to sequence
    • Group them according to last base reading
    • Separating them with gel Electrophoresis
  12. What are the 2 ways to sequence DNA?
    • Maxam and Gilbert- chemical sequencing
    • Sanger- chain termination (dideoxynucleotides (lack normal -OH group))
  13. What does the Sanger method require?
    • Multiple copies of single strand template DNA
    • Primer
    • DNA polymerase
    • A 'pool' of normal nucleotides
    • Dideoxynucleotides
  14. What are the toxin proteins that bacteria make called?
  15. What is a virus?
    An obligatory parasite that can't reproduce itself without a living host
  16. What does a virus particle consist of?
    • Outer protein shell (capsid)
    • Inner core (either DNA or RNA)
  17. What is a virus' life cycle?
    • Attachment
    • Penetration
    • Synthesis
    • Assembly
    • Release
  18. What are the 3 major genes of a virus?
    • Replication Gene
    • Coat Protein Gene
    • Lysis Gene
  19. What are plasmids?
    Naked DNA molecules
  20. What are the 2 ways DNA replicate in plasmids?
    • Bidirectional
    • Rolling Circle
  21. What are replicons?
    Nucleic acids in charge of controlling their own replication
  22. What are transposons?
    Jumping genes without the ability of self replicating
  23. What are the two essential parts of transposons?
    • Terminal Inverted Repeats
    • A gene for transposition
  24. What is a retrosposon?
    Jumping genes that replicate through an RNA intermediate
  25. What are the 2 types of repetitive sequences generated by retrosposons?
    • Short interspersed sequences (SINS)
    • Long interspersed sequences (LINS)
  26. What are selfish DNA?
    DNA that have properties of retroposons, SINS and LINS
  27. What is Junk DNA?
    Selfish DNA are disabled of replication or movement
  28. What are inteins?
    Intervening sequences of protein that are spliced out during the making of functional protein
  29. What do exteins do?
    Make the final functional protein
  30. What are the type of molecular fingerprinting?
    • DNA fingerprinting- PCR and RFLP
    • Protein and Enzymes in body fluids- using antibody
  31. What are the different ways to perform RFLP?
    • Restriction Enzyme Digest
    • Electrophoresis
    • Southern Blotting
    • Visualizing by autoradiograph
  32. How does PCR work?
    Amplifying DNA fragments by showing hyper variable region and discriminate by probe
  33. What is a mutation?
    A mistake in the cell genetic material
  34. How is the wiled type DNA altered?
    • Substitution
    • Deletion
    • Insertion
    • Duplication
  35. What is Silent mutation?
    • No change in amino acid
    • No effect in phenotype
  36. What is a missense mutation?
    Mutation changing the amino acid, making bad protein or not effect as the original
  37. What is a nonsense mutation?
    • Introducing a stop codon
    • No protein is formed by the ribosome
  38. What are the 2 ways to combat mutation?
    • Reversion- healing from mutation (rare)
    • DNA Repair Mechanism
    • -restoring damaged DNA
    • -mismatch repair- one base pair is removed and replaced with correct one
    • -excision repair- long DNA molecule is removed and replaced
  39. Which type of cell is heritable and which is non-hertiable?
    • Germline cell- heritable
    • Somatic Cell- not heritable
  40. What are the 2 types of disorders humans can have?
    • Autosomal chromosome disorder
    • Sex-linked disorders
  41. What is gene therapy?
    Replacing defected gene with a good copy of the gene
  42. What are the methods of delivery for gene therapy?
    • Plasmids
    • Adenovirus
    • Retrovirus
    • Particle Bombardment
  43. What is carcenogenesis?
    Any cancer causing agent
  44. What are the two major types of genes that cause cancer when mutated?
    • Tumor Suppressor genes- Protect from cancer when not mutated
    • Proto-oncogenes- needed for normal cell division
  45. What is codon usage?
    Preference of specific codon from group of codons making the same amino acid
  46. What is a transgenic organism/
    Have a foreign gene inserted into their genetic make-up
  47. What is genetic engineering?
    Manipulating genes in crop plants and animals for benefit of us
  48. What are the two methods to get genes into plants?
    • Plasmids
    • Gene gun
  49. What is gene pharming
    A technique used to make transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals
  50. What is a way to detect genes in transformed organisms?
    Report genes that indicate the engineered gene is delivered to its target
Card Set
Molecular Final
Molecular Final