Management 341

  1. Stress
    the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand
  2. Stressor
    the person or event that triggers the stress response
  3. Disstress/Strain
    the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events
  4. Homeostasis
    a steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium
  5. Four Approaches to Stress
    • Homeostatic/Medical Approach
    • Cognitive Appraisal Approach
    • Person-Environment Fit Approach
    • Psychoanalytic Approach
  6. Homeostatic/Medical Approach
    • Homeostasis + External Environmental demand = Stress
    • Fight or Flight
  7. Cognitive Appraisal Approach
    • Stress is result of person-environment interaction
    • Individuals differ in their appraisal of events and people
    • What is stressful for one person is not for another
    • Perception and cognitive appraisal determines what is stressful

    Problem-focused coping emphasizes managingthe stressor

    Emotion-focused coping emphasizes managing your response
  8. Person-Environment Fit Approach
    • No undue stress
    • Good person-environment fit: a person’s skills and abilities match a clearly defined, consistent set of role expectations
    • Stress, strain, and depression occur when
    • ◦Role expectations are confusing and/or conflicting
    • ◦Person’s skills and abilities do not meet the demands of the social role
  9. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • Ego Ideal – the embodiment of a person’s perfect self
    • Self-Image – how a person sees oneself, both positively & negatively

    Stress= the difference between ego ideal and self-image

    Greater discrepancy = Greater stress
  10. The Stress Response
    • Release of chemical messengers, primarily adrenaline, into the bloodstream
    • Sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system activated

    • •Blood redirected from the skin & internal organs to brain and large muscles
    • •Increased alertness: improved vision, hearing, & other sensory responses
    • •Release of glucose & fatty acids for sustenance
    • •Depression of immune system, digestion, & similar restorative processes
  11. Sources of Stress at Work
    • Task Demands
    • Change
    • Lack of control
    • Career progress
    • New technologies
    • Time pressure

    • Interpersonal Demands
    • Emotional toxins
    • Sexual harassment
    • Poor leadership
    • Role Demands
    • Role conflict:
    • - Interrole
    • - Intrarole
    • - Person-role
    • Role ambiguity

    • Physical Demands
    • Extreme environments
    • Strenuous activities
    • Hazardous substances
    • Global travel
  12. Nonwork Demands
    • Home Demands
    • Family expectations
    • Child-rearing/day care arrangements
    • Parental care

    • Personal Demands
    • Workaholism
    • Civic and volunteer work
    • Traumatic events
  13. Benefits of Stress
    • Performance
    • Increased arousal
    • Bursts of physical strength
    • Full engagement

    • Health
    • Cardiovascular efficiency
    • Balance in the nervous system
    • Enhanced focus in an emergency
  14. Costs of Distress
    • Individual
    • Psychological disorders
    • Medical illnesses
    • Behavioral problems

    • Organizational
    • Participation problems
    • Performance decrements
    • Compensation awards
  15. Organizational Distress
    • Participative Problems – a cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover
    • Performance Decrement – a cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair
    • Compensation Award – an organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress
  16. Gender-Related Stressors
    • Sexual harassment
    • Early age fatal health problems
    • Long term disabling
    • health problems
    • Violence
  17. Type A Behavior Patterns
    • A complex of personality and behavior characteristics
    • Competitiveness
    • Time urgency
    • Social status insecurity
    • Aggression
    • Hostility
    • Quest for achievements
  18. Personality Hardiness
    • A personality resistant to distress and characterized by
    • commitment (versus alienation)
    • control (versus powerlessness) challenge (versus threat)
  19. Transformational Coping
    A way of managing stressful events by changing them into subjectively less stressful events (versus regressive coping – passive avoidance of events by decreasing interaction with the environment)
  20. Self-Reliance
    A healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others
  21. Counterdependence
    An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people
  22. Overdependence
    An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships
  23. Preventative Stress Management
    An organizational philosophy that holds that people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain
  24. Stages in Preventative Stress Management
    • Primary Prevention – designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress
    • Secondary Prevention – designed to alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor
    • Tertiary Prevention – designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain
  25. Primary Prevention
    • Positive thinking: Optimistic, nonnegative self-talk that reduces depression
    • Time management: Improves planning and prioritizes activitiesLeisure-time activity: Balances work and non-work activities
  26. Secondary Prevention
    • Physical exercise: Improves cardiovascular function and muscular flexibility
    • Relaxation training: Lowers all indicators of the stress responseDiet: Lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves overall physical health
  27. Tertiary Prevention
    Opening up: Releases internalized traumas and emotional tensionsProfessional help: Provides information, emotional support, and therapeutic guidance
  28. Organizational Stress Prevention
    • Primary prevention
    • ◦Job redesign
    • ◦Goal setting
    • ◦Role negotiation
    • ◦Career management
    • Secondary Prevention
    • ◦Team building
    • ◦Social support at work
  29. Communication
    The evoking of a shared or common meaning in another person
  30. Interpersonal Communication
    Communication between two or more people in an organization
  31. Communicator/Receiver
    • C-The person originating the message
    • R-The person receiving a message
  32. Perceptual Screen
    A window through which we interact with people that influences the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the communication
  33. Message
    The thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver
  34. Feedback
    Information fed back that completes two-way communication
  35. Language
    The words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a group of people
  36. Data
    Uninterrupted and unanalyzed facts
  37. Information
    Data that have been interpreted, analyzed, and have meaning to some user
  38. Richness
    The ability of a medium or channel to elicit or evoke meaning in the receiver
  39. Reflective Listening
    • A skill intended to help the receiver and communicator clearly and fully understand the message sent
    • Used to understand other people
    • Used to problem solve
    • Emphasizes personal elements of communication process
    • Emphasizes the feelings communicated
    • Emphasizes responding to, not leading, the communicator
  40. Reflective Listening: 4 Levels of Verbal Response
    • Affirm contact
    • •Communicates attentiveness
    • •Provides reassurance in expressing thoughts and feelings
    • Paraphrase
    • •Reflects back to speaker what has been heard; assures accuracy
    • •Builds empathy, openness, acceptance
    • Clarify the implicit
    • •Bring out unspoken (but evident) thoughts and feelings
    • •Builds greater awareness
    • Reflect “core” feelings
    • •Restate important thoughts and feelings
    • •Exercise caution; danger of overreaching
  41. Reflective Listening: 2 Uses of Nonverbal Response
    • Silence
    • Speaker:
    • •Useful for thinking
    • •Determine how to express difficult ideas or feelings
    • Listener:
    • •Sort out thoughts and feelings
    • •Identify and isolate personal responses
    • Eye Contact
    • •Useful to open a relationship
    • •Improves communication
    • •Be aware of cultural differences
    • •Use moderate eye contact
    • •Use times of no eye contact for privacy and control
  42. One-Way Communication
    • A person sends a message to another person and no questions, feedback, or interaction follow
    • • Good for giving simple directions
    • • Fast but often less accurate than 2-way communication
  43. Two-Way Communication
    • The communicator and receiver interact
    • • Good for problem solving
  44. Five Keys to Effective Supervisory Communication
    • Expressive speaking
    • Empathetic listening
    • Persuasive leadership
    • Sensitivity to feelings
    • Informative management
  45. Communication barriers
    Aspects of communication content and context that can impair effective communication

    • Physical separation
    • Status differences
    • Gender differences
    • Cultural diversity
    • Language
  46. Communication gateways
    Pathways through barriers to communication and antidotes to communication problems

    • Physical separation gateways
    • Status differences gateways
    • Gender differences gateways
    • Cultural diversity gateways
    • Language gateways
  47. Physical separation gateways
    • Periodic face-to-face interactions
    • Regular meetings for interrelated units
  48. Status differences gateways
    • Effective supervisory skills
    • Feelings of security for employees
    • Non-hierarchical informational technology communication methods
  49. Gender differences gateways
    • Awareness of gender-specific differences in communication
    • Actively seek meaning clarification
  50. Cultural diversity gateways
    • Increased awareness and sensitivity
    • Develop/acquire a guide, map, beacon for understanding and interacting cross-culturally
  51. Language gateways
    • Simple, direct, declarative language
    • Use brief sentences and terms/words audience uses
    • Speak in the language of the listener
    • Avoid jargon or technical language
  52. Defensive Communication
    • Communication that can be aggressive, attacking and angry, or passive and withdrawing
    • Leads to:
    • Injured feelings
    • Communication breakdowns
    • Workplace alienation
    • Destructive and retaliatory behaviors
    • Nonproductive efforts
    • Problem solving failures
  53. Nondefensive Communication
    • Communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful
    • Provides a basis for asserting and defending oneself when attached in non-defensive way
    • Restores order, balance, and effectiveness in working relationships
  54. Steps in Nondefensive Communication
    • •Define the situatiAon
    • •Clarify the person’s position
    • •Acknowledge the person’s feelings
    • •Bring the focus back to the facts
  55. Two Defensiveness Patterns
    • Subordinate Defensiveness- characterized by passive, submissive, withdrawing behavior
    • Dominant Defensiveness – characterized by active, aggressive, attacking behavior
  56. Nonverbal Communication
    • All elements of communication that do not involve words
    • Proxemics – an individual’s perception and use of space
    • Territorial space – bands of space extending outward from the body
    • Kinesics – study of body movements, including posture
    • Facial & Eye Behavior – movements that add cues for the receiver
  57. Paralanguage
    • Variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, and crying
    • Variations in speech send messagesWhat message is sent by
    • ◦High-pitched, breathy voice
    • ◦Rapid, loud speech
    • ◦Interruptions
    • ◦Tongue clicking
  58. Seating Dynamics
    Seating people in certain positions according to the person’s purpose in communication
  59. Communicative disease
    The absence of heartfelt communication in human relationships leading to loneliness and social isolation
  60. Basis of Positive, Healthy Communication
  61. •Positive Emotional Competence
    • •Personal Integrity
    • •Head-to-Heart Dialogue
  62. Information Communication Technology (ICT)
    • The technologies used for interpersonal communication
    • Informational databases
    • Electronic mail systems
    • Voice mail systems
    • Fax machine systems
    • Cellular phone systems
  63. How ITC Affects Behavior
    • Impersonal-interaction with a machine
    • Flaming, rude or obscene outbursts
    • Bluntness
    • Intimacy
    • Uninhibited behavior
    • Overload potential
    • 24/7 Accessibility
    • Multi-tasking
    • Interpersonal skills-tact and graciousness
    • Nonverbal cues; Emotional element
    • Group productivity
    • Clues to power, organizational position, departmental membership
    • Patience
    • Social interaction
  64. Groups & Teams
    • Group – two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction
    • Work Team – a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
  65. Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group
    • Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
    • Members listen well and participate
    • Task well understood and accepted
    • People express both feelings and ideas
    • Conflict and disagreement center around ideas or methods
    • Consensus decision making
    • Group aware of its operation and function
    • Clear assignments made and accepted
  66. Norms of Behavior
    The standards that a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members
  67. Group Cohesion
    The “interpersonal glue” that makes members of a group stick together
  68. Social Loafing
    The failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group
  69. Loss of Individuality
    A social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior
  70. Formal Groups
    • Official or assigned groups gathered to perform various tasks
    • •Need ethnic, gender, cultural and interpersonal diversity
    • •Need professional and geographical diversity
  71. Informal Groups
    Unofficial or emergent groups that evolve in the work setting to gratify a variety of member needs not met by formal groups
  72. Stages of Group Formation
    • Mutual acceptance- Emphasis on interpersonal concern and awareness
    • Decision Making- Emphasis on task planning, authority and influence
    • Motivation and commitment-
    • Emphasis on task accomplishment, leadership and performance
    • Control and sanctions-
    • Emphasison rewards and punishment
  73. Three Issues Addressed by Groups
    • 1.Interpersonalissues (Matters of trust, personal comfort, and security)
    • 2.Task issues (Mission or purpose, methods, expected outcomes)
    • 3.Authority issues (Leadership, managing power and influence, communication flow)
  74. Tuckman’s 5-Stage
    Model of Group Development
    • Forming
    • Little agreement
    • Unclear purpose
    • Guidance & direction
    • Storming
    • Conflict
    • Increased clarity of
    • purpose
    • Power struggles
    • Coaching
    • Norming
    • Agreement & consensus
    • Clear roles & responsibilities
    • Facilitation
    • Performing
    • Clear vision & purpose
    • Focus on goal achievement
    • Delegation
    • Adjourning
    • Task completion
    • Good feeling about achievements
    • Recognition
  75. Mature Group Characteristics
    • Purpose and Mission
    • May be assigned or may emerge from the group
    • —Group often reexamines, modifies, revises, and questions mission and purpose
    • —Mission converted into specific agenda, clear goals, and a set of critical success factors
  76. Behavioral Norms
    • Well-understood standards of behavior within a group
    • Productivity norms may be consistent or inconsistent, supportive or unsupportive of organization’s productivity
    • standards
  77. Group Cohesion
    • Interpersonal attraction binding group members
    • together
    • Enables groups to exercise effective control over the members
  78. Groups with high cohesiveness
    • —Demonstrate lower tension and anxiety
    • Demonstrate less variation in productivity
    • —Demonstrate better member satisfaction, commitment, and communication
  79. Influences on Group Cohesion
    • Time
    • Size
    • Team Prestige
    • External Pressure
    • Internal Competition
  80. Status Structure
    • The set of authority and task relations among a group’s members
    • —Hierarchical or egalitarian
    • Often team leadership is shared
  81. Diversity Styles in Groups
    • Contributor- data and info
    • Collaborator- mission
    • Communicator- Facilitator
    • Challener- Devil's advocate
  82. Work Team
    A group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
  83. Task Functions
    • Those activities directly related to the effective
    • completion of a team’s work
  84. Team Task Functions
    • Initiate acitivies
    • Seek information
    • Give information
    • Elaborate concepts
    • Coordinate activites
    • Summarize ideas
    • Test ideas
    • Evaluate effectiveness
    • Dianose prolems
  85. Maintenance Functions
    • Those activities essential to the effective, satisfying
    • interpersonal relationships within a team or group
  86. Team Maintenance Functions
    • Support others
    • Follow other's lead
    • Communication gate-keeping
    • Set standards
    • Express members feelings
    • Test group decisions
    • Consensus testing
    • Harmonize conflict
    • Reduce tension
  87. Teamwork
    Joint action of people in which individual interests are subordinated to team unity
  88. Why Work Teams?
    • —Good when performing complicated, complex, interrelated and/or more voluminous work than one person can handle
    • Good when knowledge, talent, skills, and abilities are dispersed across organizational members
    • —Empowerment and collaboration; not power and competition
    • —Basis for total quality efforts
  89. New Team Environment
    • Person generates initiatives
    • Team charts its own steps
    • Right to think for oneself. People rock boat and work together
    • People cooperate using thoughts and feelings; direct talk
  90. Old Work Environment
    • Person follows orders
    • Manager charts course
    • People conformed to manager’s direction. No one rocked the boat
    • People cooperated by suppressing thoughts and feelings; wanted to get along
  91. Work Team Structural Issues
    • —Goals and objectives
    • Operating guidelines
    • Performance measures
    • Role specification
    • ◦Managers who oversee the team
    • ◦Work team leaders
    • ◦Team members
  92. Quality Team
    A team that is part of an organization’s structure and is empowered to act on its decisions regarding product and service quality
  93. Quality Circles (QC)
    • A small group of employees who work voluntarily on
    • company time, typically one hour per week, to address work-related problems
    • QC’s deal with substantive issues
    • ◦Do not require final decision authority
    • ◦QC’s need periodic reenergizing
  94. Social Benefits of Teams
    • Psychological Intimacy – emotional and psychological
    • closeness to other team or group members
    • Integrated Involvement – closeness achieved through tasks and activities
  95. Diversity in Teams
    • —Demographic dissimilarity
    • Racial dissimilarity
    • Structural dissimilarity
    • Value dissimilarity
  96. Teamwork: Working Together
    • The Individual
    • •Emotional competence
    • •Clear communication between heart and head,
    • thoughts and feelings
    • The Team
    • •Open communication
    • •Trust/trustworthiness
    • •Interpersonal support
  97. Benefits of Working Together
    • Positive interdependence
    • Interpersonal security
    • Win-win performance outcomes
  98. Team diversity
    • The difference in ability, skills, experience, personality, and demographic characteristics within a team
    • Surface Level Differences
    • ex. Race, gender, age, physical abilities
    • Deep Level Differences
    • ◦Knowledge or skills
    • ◦Values or beliefs
    • ◦Personality
    • ◦Organizational or community status
    • ◦Social and network ties
  99. Self-Managed Teams
    • Autonomous
    • Work Groups – teams that make decisions that were once reserved for managers
  100. Upper Echelons
    • A top-level executive team in an organization
    • Their background characteristics predict organizational characteristics
    • Organization reflects their values, ethics, competence, and unique characteristics
    • Leadership style, composition, and dynamics influences the organization’s performance
  101. 5 Seasons of CEO Tenure
    • 1.Response to a mandate
    • 2.Experimentation
    • 3.Selection of an enduring theme
    • 4.Convergence
    • 5.Dysfunction
  102. Diversity at the Top
    • Types of diversity needed
    • Functional diversity
    • —Intellectual diversity
    • —Demographic diversity
    • —Temperamental diversity
    • And more and more and more
    • Differences needed in
    • •Vision
    • •Task mastery
    • •Stewardship
    • •Facilitation
  103. Programmed Decision
    A simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule
  104. Nonprogrammed Decision
    A new, complex decision that requires a creative solution
  105. The Decision Making Process
    • Recognize the problem and the need for a decision
    • Identify the objective of the decision
    • Gather and evaluate data and diagnose the situation
    • List and evaluate alternatives
    • Select the best course of action
    • Implement the decision
    • Gather feedback
    • Followup
  106. Effective Decision
    A timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it
  107. Rationality
    A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their
  108. Rational Model of Decision Making
    • 1. The outcome will be completely rational
    • 2. The decision maker uses a consistent system of preferences to choose the best alternative
    • 3. The decision maker is aware of all alternatives
    • 4. The decision maker can calculate the probability of success for each alternative
  109. Bounded Rationality
    A theory that suggests that there are limits upon how rational a decision maker can actually be

    • Satisfice – to select the first alternative that is “good enough,” because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize-> Managers suggest the first satisfactory alternative
    • Managers recognize that their conception of the world is simple
    • —Managers are comfortable making decisions without determining all the alternatives
    • Heuristics – shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity-> Managers make decisions by rules of thumb or heuristics
  110. Garbage Can Model of Decision Making
    A theory that contends that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic
  111. Risk Aversion
    • The tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty
    • Risk takers
    • —Accept greater potential for loss
    • —Tolerate greater uncertainty
    • More likely to make risky decisions
    • Often lead the group discussions
  112. Escalation of Commitment
    The tendency to continue to commit resources to a failing course of action
  113. Cognitive Style
    • an individual’s preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives
    • •Individual’s perceiving style
    • •Individual’s judging style
    • •Cognitive style
  114. Jung’s 4 Cognitive Styles
    • ST-Sensing/thinking- Facts and impersonal analysis
    • SF- Sensing/feeling- Facts and interpersonal relationships
    • NT- Intuiting/thinking- Initiate ideas and analyze alternatives
    • NF- Intuiting/feeling- Participative decision making and humanistic values
  115. Z Problem Solving Model
  116. Two Brains, Two Cognitive Styles
    Left Hemisphere- Verbal, Sequential, temporal, digital, Logical, analytic, Rational, Western thought

    • Set goals for task completion,Work to attain goals
    • Right Hemisphere- Nonverbal, visuospatial, Simultaneous, spatial, analogical, Gestalt, synthetic, Intuitive, Eastern thought

    • •Ask what-if questions, Engage in play, Follow your intuition
    • Ideal = “brain-lateralized” making use of either or both sides, depending on situation
  117. Influences on Decision-Making
    • Intuition– fast, positive force in decision making utilized at a level below consciousness and involves learned patterns of information
    • Creativity– a process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both
  118. Four Stages of the Creative Process
    • Preparation – experience or opportunity to build knowledge base
    • Incubation – reflective thought, often unconscious
    • Illumination – insight into solving a problem
    • Verification – thinking, sharing, testing the decision
  119. Influences on Creativity
    • Individual Examples
    • Cognitive Processes
    • ◦Divergent thinking
    • ◦Associational abilities
    • ◦Unconscious processes
    • —Personality Factors
    • ◦Intellectual, artistic values
    • ◦Breadth of interests
    • ◦High energy
    • ◦Self-confidence
    • Organizational Examples
    • —Autonomous feelings
    • —Diverse team skills
    • —Quality, supportive relationships with supervisors
    • Flexible organization structure
    • —Participative decision making
  120. Ways to Facilitate Creativity
    • Organizations can promote creativity by
    • Rewarding creativity
    • —Allowing employees to fail
    • Making work more fun
    • Providing creativity training
    • Exposing employees to new ideas by
    • ◦Rotating jobs
    • ◦Working with outside groups
    • ◦Using creativity stimuli (music, art, etc.)
  121. ParticipativeDecision Making
    Individuals who are affected by decisions influence the making of those decisions
  122. Foundations for Participation and Empowerment
    • Organizational Foundatios
    • —Participative, supportive organizational culture
    • Team-oriented work design
    • Individual Prerequisites
    • —Capability to become psychologically involved in participative activities
    • —Motivation to act autonomously
    • —Capacity to see the relevance of participation for one’s own well-being
  123. Group Decision-Making
    • Synergy – a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group
    • Social decision schemes – simple rules used to determine final group decisions
  124. Groupthink
    • a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from pressures within the group
    • Conditions Favoring Groupthink
    • —High cohesiveness
    • Group homogeneity
    • —Decision with high consequences
    • —Time constraints
  125. Symptoms of Groupthink
    • —Illusions of invulnerability
    • —Illusions of group morality
    • —Illusions of unanimity
    • —Rationalization
    • —Stereotyping the enemy
    • Self-censorship
    • —Peer pressure
    • —Mindguards

    • Consequences of Groupthink
    • Incomplete survey of alternatives
    • —Failure to evaluate the risks of the preferred course of action
    • —Biased information processing
    • —Failure to work out contingency plans
  126. Group Polarization
    The tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members
  127. Group Decision Making Techniques
    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
    • Delphi Technique
    • Devil’s Advocacy
    • Dialectical Inquiry
    • Quality Circles and Quality Teams
    • Self-Managed Teams
  128. Brainstorming
    a technique for generating as many ideas as possible on a given subject, while suspending evaluation until all the ideas have been suggested
  129. Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
    • a structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one
    • NGT steps
    • 1.Individuals silently list their ideas
    • 2.Ideas are written on a chart one at a time until all
    • ideas are listed
    • 3. Discussion is permitted but only to clarify the ideas.
    • No criticism is allowed
    • 4. A written vote is taken
  130. Delphi technique
    gathering the judgments of experts for use in decision making
  131. Devil’s advocacy
    a technique for preventing groupthink in which a group or individual is given the role of critic during decision making
  132. Dialectical inquiry
    • A debate between two opposing sets of recommendations
    • Constructive conflict approach
    • Focus on win-win; not on win-lose
  133. Power/Influence/Authority
    • Power – the ability to influence another person
    • Influence– the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person
    • Authority– the right to influence another person
  134. Zone of Indifference
    • The range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate and will be acted on
    • without a great deal of thought
    • Managers strive to expand employee’s zone of indifference
  135. Sources of Organizational Power: Interpersonal
    • Reward Power – agent’s ability to control the rewards that the target wants
    • Coercive Power – agent’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target
    • Legitimate Power – agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement
    • Referent Power – based on interpersonal attraction; charismatic
    • Expert Power – agent has specialized knowledge or skills that the target needs
  136. Information Power
    • access to and control over important information
    • Formal/informal position in communication network
    • Interpreting information when passing it on (the spin)
    • Can flow upward, downward, and laterally
  137. Two Faces of Power
    • Personal Power – power used for personal gain
    • Social Power – power used to create motivation or to accomplish group goals
  138. Etzioni’s Power Analysis
  139. Kanter’s Symbols of Power
    • Ability to intercede for someone in trouble
    • Ability to get placements for favored employees
    • —Exceeding budget limitations
    • Procuring above-average raises for employees
    • —Getting items on meeting agendas
    • —Access to early information
    • Having top managers seek out their opinion
  140. Kanter’s Symbols of Powerlessness
    • Top Executives
    • • Budget cuts
    • • Punishing behaviors
    • • Top-down communications
    • Managers
    • • Assign external attribution
    • • Blame others
    • • Blame environment
    • Staff Professionals
    • • Resistance to change
    • • Turf protection
    • First-line Supervisors
    • • Overly close supervision
    • • Inflexible adherence to rules
    • • Do job rather than train
    • Key to overcoming powerlessness: share power and delegate decision making
  141. Korda’s Power Symbols
    • Furnishings
    • Stand-by
    • Time
    • Power – there are more people who inconvenience themselves on your behalf than there are people on whose behalf you would inconvenience yourself
    • Status – a person’s relative standing in a group based on prestige and deference
  142. Influence by Consultation
    The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed strategy, policy, or change.
  143. Influence by Inspirational Appeals
    The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals, or by increasing your confidence that you can do it.
  144. Political Skill
    • ability to get things done through favorable interpersonal relationships outside of formally prescribed organizational mechanisms
    • Social astuteness
    • —Interpersonal influence
    • Networking ability
    • Sincerity
  145. Guidelines for Empowering
    • Express confidence in employees
    • Set high performance expectations
    • Create opportunities for participative decision making
    • —Remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy
    • —Set inspirational and meaningful goals
  146. Employee Empowerment Grid
  147. Finkelstein: Why Executives Fail
    • —See themselves and their companies as dominant, without peers
    • —Think they have all the answers
    • —Eliminate those not 100% behind them
    • Rely on what worked for them in the past
    • —No clear boundaries between personal interests and corporate interests
  148. Using Power Effectively
    • Use power in ethical ways
    • Understand and use all of the various types of power and influence
    • —Seek out jobs that allow you to develop your power skills
    • Use power tempered by maturity and self-control
    • Accept that influencing people is an important part of the management job
  149. Leadership
    • Leadership– the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
    • Formal leadership – the officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position
    • Informal leadership– the unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization
  150. Followership
    the process of being guided and directed by a leader in the work environment
  151. Managers and Leaders
    • •Leader– an advocate for change and new approaches to problems
    • •Manager– an advocate for stability and the status quo
  152. Kotter: Management and Leadership
    • Management
    • Plans, budgets
    • Organizes, staffs
    • —Controls, solves problems
    • Managers advocate for stability and status quo
    • Leadership
    • Sets direction
    • Aligns people through communication
    • Motivates people
    • Leaders advocate for change and new approaches

  153. Early Trait Theories
    • Distinguished leaders by
    • —Physical attributes
    • Personality characteristics
    • Social skills and speech fluency
    • Intelligence and scholarship
    • —Cooperativeness
    • —Insight
  154. Leadership Behavioral Theory: Lewin Studies
    • Autocratic Style – the leader uses strong, directive, controlling actions to enforce the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships; followers have little discretionary influence
    • Democratic Style – the leader takes collaborative, reciprocal, interactive actions with followers; followers have high degree of discretionary influence
    • Laissez-Faire Style – the leader fails to accept the responsibilities of the position; creates chaos in the work environment
  155. Leadership Behavioral Theory: Ohio State Studies
    • Initiating Structure – leader behavior aimed at
    • defining and organizing work relationships and roles; establishing clear patterns of organization, communication, and ways of getting things done
    • Consideration – leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit
  156. Leadership Behavioral Theory: Michigan Studies
    • Production-Oriented Leader
    • Constant leader influence
    • Direct or close supervision
    • Many written or unwritten rules and regulations
    • Focus on getting work done
    • Employee-Oriented Leader
    • Relationship-focused environment
    • Less direct/close supervision
    • Fewer written or unwritten rules and regulations
    • Focus on employees’ concerns and needs
  157. Leadership Grid Definitions
    • Leadership Grid – an approach to understanding a leader’s or manager’s concern for results (production) and concern for people
    • Organization Man Manager (5,5) – a leader who balances production with employee morale, middle of the road
    • Country Club Manager (1,9) – a leader who creates
    • a happy, comfortable work environment
    • Authority Compliance Manager (9,1)– a leader who emphasizes efficient production
    • Team Manager (9,9) – a leader who builds a
    • highly productive team of committed people
    • Impoverished Manager (1,1) – A leader who exerts
    • just enough effort to get by
    • Paternalistic “father knows best” Manager (9+9) – a leader who promises reward and threatens punishment
    • Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” Manager (Opp) – a leader whose style aims to maximize self-benefit
  158. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
    • Classifies the favorableness of the leader’s situation
    • Three Favorableness Situations
    • 1.Least preferred coworker (LPC)– the person a leader has least preferred to work with over his or her career
    • 2. Situational Favorableness
    • —Task Structure– degree of clarity, or ambiguity, in the group’s work activities
    • —Position Power – authority associated with the leader’s formal position in the organization
    • —Leader-Member Relations– quality of interpersonal relationships among a leader and group members
    • 3. Leadership Effectiveness
  159. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
    • Leader Behavior Styles
    • Follower Characteristics
    • Workplace Characteristics
    • Follower Path Perceptions
    • Follower Goals
  160. Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model
    • Use the decision method most appropriate for a given decision situation
    • Deligate
    • Facilitate
    • Consult group
    • Consult individually
    • Decide
  161. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model
    • S1- high task/low relationship- Provide specific instructions & closely supervise performance
    • S2- high task/high relationship- Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification
    • S3- low relationship/high task-Share ideas & facilitate In decision making
    • S4- low relationship/low task-Turn over responsibility for decisions & implementation
    • Follower Readiness
    • Leader directed
    • R1-Unable and unwilling or insecure
    • R2- Unable but willing or confident
    • Follwer Directed
    • R3- able but unwilling or insecure
    • R4- able and willing or confident
  162. Developments in Leadership Theory
    Leader- Member Exchange (LMX)
    • In-Groups
    • Members similar to leader
    • Given greater responsibilities, rewards, attention
    • Within leader’s inner circle of communication
    • High job satisfaction and organizational commitment, low turnover
    • Stress from added responsibilities
    • Out-Groups
    • Managed by formal rules and policies
    • Given less attention; fewer rewards
    • Outside the leader’s communication circle
    • More likely to retaliate against the organization
    • Stress from being left out of communication network
  163. Developments in Leadership Theory (cont)
    • Substitutes for Leadership
    • Satisfying task
    • —Performance feedback
    • —Employee’s high skill level
    • —Team cohesiveness
    • —Organization’s formal controls
    • Transformational Leadership
  164. Transformational Leadership
    • •Charismatic
    • •Individualized consideration
    • •Inspirational motivation
    • •Intellectual stimulation
  165. Charismatic Leadership
    • a leader’s use of personal abilities and talents in order to have profound and extraordinary effects on followers
    • Charisma– means gift in Greek
    • Charismatic leaders use referent power
    • Potential for high achievement and performance
    • Potential for destructive and harmful courses of action
  166. Authentic Leadership
    A style of leadership that includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional approaches as the situation demands
  167. Emerging Issues in Leadership
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Trust
    • Women leaders
    • Servant Leadership
  168. Emotional Intelligence
    • —Ability to recognize and manage emotion in oneself and others
    • —Affects how leaders make decisions
    • Comprised of competencies
    • —Self-awareness
    • —Empathy
    • —Adaptability
    • —Self-confidence
    • —Trust
  169. Servant Leadership
    • Leaders lead by serving others
    • Employees
    • Customers
    • Community
  170. Abusive Supervision
    • Negative behaviors include
    • —Sexual harassment
    • —Physical violence
    • —Angry outbursts
    • Public ridicule
    • Taking credit for employees’ successes
    • Scapegoating employees
  171. Five Types of Followers
    • Alienated followers- passive/independent
    • Effective followers- active/independent
    • Sheep- passive/dependent
    • Yes people- active/dependent
    • Survivors (middle)
  172. Dynamic Follower
    • Responsible steward of his or her job
    • —Effective in managing the relationship with the boss
    • —Practices self-management
  173. Guidelines for Leadership
    • 1.Unique attributes, predispositions, and talents of each leader should be appreciated
    • 2.Organizations should select leaders who challenge but not destroy the organizational culture
    • 3.Leader behaviors should demonstrate a concern for people; it enhances follower well-being
    • 4.Different leadership situations call for different leadership talents and behaviors
    • 5.Good leaders are likely to be good followers
Card Set
Management 341
Chapters 7-12