America seemed to favor isolationism after World War I
America could not stay isolated with expanding global interests
- No League of Nations membership, Red Scare, restrictive immigration laws, and high tariff rates.
- U.S. relationship with the League of Nations underscored tensions between isolationism and expanding global interests.
Johnson debt default act (1934)
prohibited private loans to any gov that had defaulted on debts to the US.
Washington Armaments Conference (1921)
- Five-Power Naval Treaty
- Four-Power Treaty
- Nine-Power Treaty
- significance of those:
- Politically popular in the U.S, but without obligations or teeth.
- Naval treaty only placed limits on capital ships (battleships and aircraft carriers), and triggered a naval arms race in smaller ships that were not limited.
- signed by America, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.
- Incorporated Tonnage limits, moratorium on capital shipbuilding,
- no further fortification of Pacific possessions
- France, Britain, and Japan.
- Each would respect others' Pacific possessions
- Five Powers plus China, Belgium, Portugal, and the Netherlands.
- They all Agreed to support the Open-Door Policy and the territorial integrity of China
Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 (Pact of Paris)
Policy of peace and noninvolvement in Latin America
U.S. paid Colombia $25 million for canal in 1921.
American forces withdrew from the Dominican Republic
Peacefully solved problem with Mexico
Pan American Conferences of 1928 and 1933
no nation has the right to intervene in internal/external affairs of one another.
Clark memorandum of 1928
restricted reasons for intervention in Latin America
had provisions allowing intervention in Cuba; abrogated in 1934.
Trade Agreements Act of 1934
allowed the press to lower tariffs 50% for countries that did the same.
Soviet Russia – Gained diplomatic recognition in
united Italy, Germany, and Japan. Creating the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis" by 1937. Germany united with Austria in 1938.
ger broke Munich pledge and conquered the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939
War declared when
Britain and France declared war on Germany after Germany (in coordination with the Soviet Union) invaded Poland in September 1939
Nye Committee's "merchants of death
reflects the isolationist mood
Neutrality Act of 1935
- Declared – Forbade sale of arms or munitions to belligerents
- Weakness of act – became apparent when Italy still conquered Ethiopia. Provisions added to forbid loans to warring nations in 1936
Neutrality Act of 1937
- Maintained – restraints on arms sales and loans
- Added a "cash and carry" provision –allowed nations at war to carry U.S. goods from U.S. ports on their own ships.
- In Chinese-Japanese confrontation – Roosevelt did not invoke act to ensure China had access to the American munitions trade.
Japan bombed and sunk an American gunboat in China in 1937 – Japan paid reparations and apologized → American animosity toward Japan increased
Blitzkrieg (spring 1940)
invades Denmark, Belgium, Norway, and the Netherlands; France falls to Germany by June.
american response to the outbreak of war
- Military build-up,
- Increased defense budget
- National Defense Research Committee established to coordinate military research
Battle of Britain in 1940
– Britain's survival ended threat of German invasion
lend lease act
The Act’s fall – bypassed the legal restrictions against extending loans to countries that defaulted on earlier U.S. loans. Weakening isolationist opposition failed to prevent its passage
- Define war aims
- Freedom from want, fear, tyranny for all
- Free trade
Japanese expansion and policies after 1940
Signed Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy in 1940
each pledged to declare war on any nation that attacked any of them.
Nonaggression pact – with Russia signed in 1941
once the Nazis invaded Russia in June, the Japanese were freed of any threat from the north.
America's reaction to Japanese expansion and policies after 1940
- Roosevelt Froze Japanese assets and restricted oil exports to Japan in summer of 1941
- and organized the armed forces of the Philippines into the U.S. Army in summer 1941.
Result of the American oil embargo
triggered plans to invade British and Dutch possessions in Southeast Asia and the Pacific to secure new oil supplies
The United States enters World War 2
December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked on Pearl Harbor and attacked the Philippines, Guam, Midway, Hong Kong, and the Malay Peninsula. The U.S. declared war on Japan.
On December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.