1. rationalization
    defense mechanism that gives socially acceptable reasons for action that are really based on motives that they believe to be unacceptable
  2. locus of control
    an individual's sense of where his or her life influences originate
  3. humors
    four body fluids- blood, phlegm, black bile, & yellow bile- that, according to an ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance
  4. reaction formation
    defensive mechanism occurs when people act in exact opposition to their true feelings
  5. latency
    • desires: repression of secual & agressive desires including those involved in the Oedipus Complex
    • challenge: consciously- learning modesty with shame, unconsciously- dealing with repressed Oedipus conflict
    • later signs of problems: excessive modesty, preference for company of same sex, homosexuality
  6. Hawthorne Effect
    when people know they are being observed, they change their behavior to what they think the observer expects or to make themselves look good
  7. denial
    defense mechanism that avoids a difficult situation by simply denying that it exists
  8. basic anxiety
    • an emotion proposed by Karen Horney
    • gives a sense of uncertainty & loneliness in a hostile world
    • can lead to maladjustment
  9. inferiority complex
    a feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with its roots in childhood
  10. central traits
    according to trait theory, traits that form that basis of personality
  11. displacement
    defense mechanism involves shifting your reaction from the real source of your distress to a safer individual or object
  12. regression
    defense mechanism where a person adopts immature, juvenile behavior that was an effective way of dealing with stress when they were younger
  13. sublimation
    defense mechanism when gratifying sexual or aggressive desires in ways that are acceptable in one's culture
  14. secondary traits
    in trait theory, preferences & attitudes
  15. cardinal traits
    • personality components that define people's lives
    • very few have it
  16. oedipus complex
    • Freud
    • a largely unconscious process where by boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and at the same time indentify with their fathers
  17. penis envy
    • Freud
    • the female desire to have a penis
    • a condition that usually results in their attraction to males
  18. MMPI-2
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    a widely used personality assessment instrument that gives scores on ten importan clinical traits
  19. projective test
    • personality assessment instruments (Rorschach & TAT)
    • based on Freud's wgo defense mechanism of projection
  20. actualizing tendency
    an innate drive that motivates a person to reach his or her full potential
  21. introversion
    the Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience- one's own thoughts & feelings- making the person less outgoing & sociable
  22. extraversion
    the Jungian personality dimension involving turning one's attention outward, towards others
  23. self- concept
    our ouverall view of our abilities, behavior, & personality
  24. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    a projective test requiring subjects to describe what they see in a series of ten inkblots
  25. Thematic Apperception Test
    a projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures
  26. neo-freudians
    • refers to theorists who broke with Freud but whose theories retain a psychodynamic ascpect
    • especially a focus on motivation as the source of energy for the personality
  27. personal unconscious
    Jung's term for that portion corresponding roughly to the Freudian Id
  28. genital stage
    • desires: mature sexual relationships
    • challenge: displacing energy into healthy activities, establishing new relationship with parents
  29. projection
    defense mechanism when you use the defense of projection to attribute our own unconscious desire to other people or objects
  30. self-esteerm
    one part of our self-concept or how we evaliate ourselves
  31. unconditional positive regard
    the acceptance of a person for who he or she is
  32. congruence
    occurs when a person can be him or herself & not worry about trying to impress others with false beliefs or behavior
  33. libido
    Freudian concept of psychic energy that drives individuals to experience sensual pleasure
  34. Id
    primitive, unconscious portion of the personality that houses the most basic drives & stores repressed memories
  35. neuroticism
    susceptibility to neurotic problems
  36. surface traits
    hundreds of visible areas of personality
  37. collective unconscious
    • Jung's addition involving a reservoir for instinctive "memories"
    • including archetypes, which exists in all people
  38. archetypes
    • the ancient memory images in the collective unconscious
    • appear & reappear in art, literature, & folktales around the world
  39. source traits
    16 basic traits that underlie personality characteristics
  40. fixation
    occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage
  41. superego
    • the mind's storehouse of values
    • including moral attitudes learned from parents & from society
    • roughly the same as the common notion of the conscience
  42. ego
    • the conscious, rational part of the personality
    • charged with keeping peace between the superego & the Id
  43. Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    a widely used personality test based on Jungian types
  44. Barnum Effect
    people have the tendency to see themselves in vague, stock descriptions of personality
  45. reciprocal determinism
    the process in which cognitions, behavior, and the environment mutually influence each other
  46. phallic stage
    • desires: stimulation of genitals
    • challenge: resolving Oedipus complex, involving erotic attraction to parent of opposite sec & hostility to parent of same sex
    • latersigns of problems: masturbation, jealousy, egocentric sex, sexual conquests, problems with parents
  47. anal stage
    • desires: anal stimulation by bladder & bowel function
    • challenge: toilet training, self-contril
    • later signs of problems: messiness, temper tantrums, destructiveness, cruelty, excessive cleanliness, stinginess, coldness, distance, aloofness
  48. oral stage
    • desires: oral stimulation by sucking, eating, crying, babbling
    • challenge: overcoming dependency
    • later signs of problems: smoking, nail biting, chewing, gluttony, obesity, talkativeness, dependency, gullibility
  49. five factory theory
    • a trait perspective suggesting that personality is composed of five fundamental personality dimensions:
    • openness to experience
    • conscientiousness
    • extraversion
    • agreeableness
    • neuroticism
  50. repression
    an unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory
  51. ego defense mechanism
    largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety
  52. psychosexual stages
    successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulations of specific body areas at different times of life
Card Set
CH10 Vocab