One of the best known obstervations is that stuttering appears to _____________.
"Run in Families"
What 2 people are associated with the Newcastle Study?
Andrews & Harris
Incidence in 1st degree relatives of stutterers is how may times that in the general population?
What's the main name associated with the familial genetical model study or statistical model to predict an inheritance pattern that re-examined Andrews & Harris data?
Kidd (re-examined Andrews & Harris data)
Kidd's statistical model ruled out simple _________, sex-linked recessive or dominant transmission.
Analysis from Andrews & Harris and Kidd & assoc. suggest that a "multifactorial _________ and _________ interaction" model might account for familial patterns.
Genetic and Environmental Interaction appear to provide a "____________" that is manifested in various ways and includes stuttering.
What's wrong with the "predisposition" theory associated with genetic and environmental interaction?
Doesn't explain severity via heredity
Requires a "Sex-Limitation" making threshold lower in males
"Predisposition" in a greater amount to be inherited by females or be exposed to more severe environmental pressures
Findings differ in _________ surrounding female stutterers.
Duration since onset of stuttering in different levels of _________ may have been relied on in studies.
1. Inadequate definitions
2. Lack of stuttering relatives verified
3. Exclusion of relatives beyond 1st degree
4. Spontaneous recovery #s inaccurate
are all examples of?
Methodological Problems in Genetic Research
We inherit a genetic ______, but we also inherit an atmospheres of _______ that can pervade the entire family.
Johnson suggested "______ ______" in regard to heriditary manner of transmission for stuttering.
Johnson pointed out that attitudes and a general "climate of ______" can be "inherited" in a family.
_______found very few stutterers in the KS branch of an IO family that had many stutterers.
Various studies have consistenly suggested large proportions os stutterers among _______ _______.
Identical twins inheriting identical genetic code when one fertilized egg splits.
Fraternal twins sharing only half of their genetic code.
There is evidence of greater "_________" (occurrence of stuttering in both) for identical twins. (Andrews)
Evidence contradicting genetic inheritance....some twin pairs are "________."
Howie found ____ out of 16 identical pairs had only one member who stuttered.
Who analyzed physical and behavioral similarities in 95 twin pairs raised apart?
In 95 twin pairs, how many cases in Farber's analysis did she identify stuttering?
Only 1 member of each pair stuttered
Farber is quoted to say that of all the speech characteristics, "only stuttering seems _________ related."
An interpretation for presumed incidence in twin pairs by West is that there is a "__________ prediposition."
An interpretation for presumed incidence in twin pairs by Schuell is that the _________ less mature member of a twin pair is pressured to keep up.
An interpretation for presumed incidence in twin pairs by Nelson is that similar ________ and _______ of pairs leads to appearance of "concordance."
Who did an adoption study that found that 4 of 13 stutterers had adoptive family members who stutter.
Who's data in regard to adoption studies found that stuttering in biological families was more predictive than adoptive families?
From studies of primitive societies lead to the conclusion that high incidence of stuttering is associated with what factors?
High Standards of Achievement
Intolerance of Inadequacy or Abnormality
High Premiums on Competency in Speaking
Several researchers have identified specific chromosomes that may be related to the "stuttering _______"
What percentage range resulting from studies has been revealed to show stutterers having no family hx of stuttering?
________ can NOT be assumed to be the only factor to cause stuttering.
Who searched for "lack of lateral dominance" (less activity in the left hemisphere during speech) through EEG studies?
Many studies have suggestted a greater level of right side during speech than nonstutteres involving structures that "________" the areas of the left hemisphere normally involved in speech.
What studies have used radioactive "tracers" to mark areas of greater brain activity indicated by concentrations of blood flow?
Cerebral Blood Flow studies (CBF)
What 4 factors can influence brain imaging studies?
Overactivation of R. Hemisphere
Inactivity of L. Auditory cortex
Less dense White Matter in Operculum
are all general findings of what type of studies?
Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF)
Difficulty with ________ may result from stutterers less efficient use of L. Hemisphere &/or greater reliance on R. Hemisphere.
Left Hemisphere is best suited for more _______changing signals (like speech).
Right Hemisphere is better suited for more _______ changing signals (like music).
Curlee cautions the reflection of the R. Hemisphere's role in ________ expression.
"__________" between the "speech hemisphere" and "emotions hemisphere" might play a significant role in the development of stuttering.
Stutterers perform more poorly on tasks involving perception of synthetic speech signals tracking onsets & offsets of tones in the presence of masking is evidenced in ____________.
Central Auditory Processing
Speech involves simultaneous motor-planning-execution and sensory feedback is known as __________ control.
It has been suggested that fear and anxiety affect _________ processing.
If a single ______ mechanism is responsible for timing of input-output signals, perhaps a deficit in this mechanism would result in stuttering.
What terminology would you associate with the recording of a person pushing a button, saying a word, start-stop phonation, tracking a rising-falling tone?
There's consistent findings of slower reaction times in stutterers especially when ________ stimuli are used.
Who's quote is: "The differences between stutterers and nonstutterers have shown themselves to be neither necessary nor sufficient to create stuttering."
What are "indirect" measures of basic speech processes?
What are a "direct" measures of speech ability?
Coordination of Speech Movements
Stuttering is not an "_________" event; instead the stutterer fluctuates along a _________ of fluency.
All or Nothing
What are some nonspeech motor skills of general body coordination that are affected in stutterers?
Poor use of L. Hemisphere (Tapping)
Auditory tracking tasks
Stuttering onset often associated with _______ development.
What are 2 specific language factors that influence stuttering?
Stutterers tend to be later in dev. S-L, especially in the area of __________.
What are some areas of S-L development where stutterers frequently lag behind?
Stutterers are ________ times more likely to exhibit articulation disorders.
What attributes of stuttering illustrate that a child who struggles with artic and lang dev. may come to believe that speech is difficult?
Anxiety and _______ arousal is associated with stuttering.
Stutterers temperament as a group may be more _________ and ________.
What type of medical hx can be generalized with stutterers?
_______ may not be as important as the opportunity or "pressure" to achieve--primarily through speech.
In regard to intelligence, stutterers are__________.
Close to norm or slightly below
Incidence of stutterers is higher in ____ _______ populations.
Mentally Deficient (Down Syndrome)
There is speculation that the greater the deficit one has in ______ _______, the greater the likelihood of stuttering.
Stutterers in school are evidence to have poorer educational _______.
Stutterers tend to be how far behind their peers?
What 2 factors are associated with stutterers scoring lower in school achievement tests?
Difficulty speaking in classroom situations
Deficits in Language related skills
What potential contributing developmental/environmental factors can influence stuttering?
What time period (age range) are contributing factors of stuttering most critically involved? (same as onset of stuttering)
There is not a single factor or even a distinctive set of conditions that characterizes the "________________"
Onset of stuttering
Who noted the seeming "ordinariness" of the environment at the onset of stuttering?
It is typically _______ to identify "the" precipitating factor responsible for onset.
In this model, the brain must share its capacity with many different demands in the developing child (computer's "multitasking" and slowed processing)
Capacities and Demands Model
The brain's performance may be more affected by the ______ of the tasks.
The more dissimilar the tasks (driving and talking) the ______ interference.
The more similar the tasks (rubbing stomach while patting head) the _______ interference.
If language races ahead of the motor skills in articulation, the _______ on that system exceed its _______.
Intensive growth in physical development happens between what years?
1 to 6 yrs
What areas of physical development show the most intensive growth from ages 1 to 6?
Perceptual & Motor skills
Physical growth (size)
Rapidly developing abilities may compete with fluency for _______ resources.
Few children learn to walk and talk ________.
Children learning a new motor skill may become _________.
Temporarily more Disfluent
Rapid physical growth (especially in vocal tract) causes _______ targets to change.
Crawling, sitting, walking, feeding, dressing, etc. are examples of essentially normal _______ ________.
This development involves perceiving, recalling, classifying, reasoning, imagining, problem solving, etc.
Cognitive Development is closely intertwined with "________."
What psychologist is associated with the Role of Stages of Cognitive Development?
What 2 Stages of Cognitive Development are there associated in the role of stuttering?
This period of cognitive development if from birth to 2 yrs old and is primarily concerned with "coordinating" perceptual and motor systems to explore and interpret the world.
This period of cognitive development is from 2-6 yrs old and is concerned w/ lang. & cognitive development.
________ ________ may interfere with coordination of speech movements.
Parent reports frequently correlate early disfluency with conditions of ________.
Davis reported in his research "excitement over own activity" was most likely to result in ________.
Johnson et al. wrote that parent reports of "onset" most often involved conditions of excitement or ______ ________.
Other social conditions that can attribute to onset of stuttering include:
Separation and Individuation (autonomy)
Birth of a Sibling
Development of Self-Consciousness
___________ abilities may signal beginning of self-awareness.
As children, onset of stuttering may have slight tendency for more syptoms of overall psychological _________.
What are Four Broad Conclusions in regard to overall psychological adjustment?
Normal psychological profiles
No identifiable personality traits characterizing stutterers
Extreme overlapping adequacy of adjustment
Some social maladjustment
With increasing information and more language with which to express it, if the child succumbs to time-pressures to speak more quickly, his production accuracy may suffer.
Relationships among _______ development, normal _________, and stuttering have been documented.
There are increases is disfluency in what 2 ways?
Language Development periods
Linguistic Complexity of utterances is increased
Pearl & Bernthal noted fewest disfluencies on SAD, but most on ______ sentence types.
Linguistic complexity is a ________variable.
Children with _______ delays are less likely to recover from stuttering, especially those with _______ delays.
This theory implicates parents' role in onset of stuttering and spurred research into differences between parents of stutterers vs. parents of nonstutterers.
Who is associated with Diagnosogenic Theory?
Moncur interview study found mothers of stutterers were more:
Johnson's theory believes parents of stutterers to be more __________ having higher standards of behavior.
Andrews & Harris's Newcastle study depicting parents of general inclination to be poor parents due to "_____ ______ _______."
Low Innate Capacity
Bloodstein concluded there is no substantial evidence that parents of stutterers are _______ or ______.
______________ are perhaps the clearest evidence that parents aren't the primary factor in causing stuttering.
Siblings who do not stutter
One study suggested that the _______ of speaking may be higher in parents of stutterers.
Mothers of Non-S and severe S _______ more often when children are disfluent.
Mothers of severe stutterers exhibited more "_________" than mothers of milder stutterers.
Overall, no clear, consistend differences between _____ ________ of stutterers and nonstutterers; not a necessary or sufficient factor.
Children who may be vulnerable to stuttering may have their fluency affected by ________ life events.
Who found 16 situations in which parents first recalled noticing their child's stuttering?
Johnson & assoc.
What are 4 of the 16 situations that Johnon found where parents reported recall of noticing their child's stuttering?
Environment change (moved)
________ is not a necessary or sufficient condition to the onset of stuttering.
What are the 3 Learning Factors that "condition" stutterers?
This type of learning takes place when there is a repeated association between a neutral stimulus (phone) and another stimulus (stuttering) that naturally and consistently evoke a response.
Classical conditioning (Pavlov's dog)
In this type of learning, the frequency at which a behavior occurs is related to the consequences that follow. If behavior is followed by a reward, it increases; if it is followed by aversive consequence, it decreases.
Elevator button pushing and wearing a lucky shirt to take an exam are illustrations of what type of operant conditioning?
Getting a speeding ticket that in turn makes you drive more cautiously as a result is an example of what kind of operant conditioning?
This kind of operant conditioning occurs whenever a behavior (escape behavior) is followed by the termination of an unpleasant situation
"Cancellation" and "Pullout" techniques are examples of _______ _________.
Operant conditioning can increase the frequency of _________ ________.
This conditioning can increase the frequency of behaviors that stutterers use to postpone or evade expected stutterers.
What 2 people are associated with Cerebral Dominance Therory (aka Handedness Theory)
Samuel Orton (neurologist)
Lee Edward Travis (psychologist)
Cerebral Dominance Theory (Handedness) theorized that stutterers lack of ________ dominance.
Hemispheric (they receive motor impulses from both hemispheres)
According to Handedness Theory, stuttering occurs only when the _____________ is insufficient.
Margin of Dominance
Margin of Dominance risks for developing stutttering include:
L. Handers forced to change
L. Handers "exposed" to R. Handed society
R. Handers (least)
This is based on a "hand usage" questionaire devloped by Johnson on which cubjects indicated which hand they used to perform common tasks (1.00 total R. handedness or 0.00 for perfect left-handedness)
The unexpected results of the handedness theory was that stutterers in most cases turned out to be relatively ______ handed like the general population.
Various tests were devised which seemed to suggest mixed or confused dominance in stutterers.
Innate Lateral Dominance
What are the 3 inefficient localizations of speech and lanugage processing in stutterers. (telecommunications center illustrations)
Underdeveloped Left Brain
Unsuited Right Brain
Located in Both L. & R.
This test involved simultaneous drawing of a figure with both hands on both sides of a vertical board closed at varying degrees.
Critical-Angle Board test
More ambidextrous= more ______ the critical angle.
This theory focuses on the role of testosterone in fetal development.
Hormonal Theory (Modern Cerebral Dominance Theory)
The timing of excess testosterone as sex differentiantion occurs (becoming male) may ________ the developmnet of the _______ hemisphere.
Who is associated with the Hormonal Theory?
Geschwind & Galaburda
If the L. hemisphere is unprepared to accept the _______ ________ cells for S-L, these may instead migrate to the R. Hemisphere.
Specialized Nerve cells
Acc. to Hormonal Theory, the placement of specialized nerve cells in R. hemisphere and resulting interconnection usually is not efficient reslting in:
According to Webster, overflow of R. hemisphere activations (emotions) disrupts ___________ for speech.
Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)
"When a person stutters on a word, there is a temporal disruption of the simultaneous and successive programming of muscular movements required to produce one of the word's integrated sounds..."
Stuttering as a Disorder of Timing
Who is associated with stuttering as a Disorder of Timing?
Stuttering as a Disorder of Timing requires assuming a _____________ exists.
Central Timing Device
This theory shows that learning speech involves storing up perceptual models of sounds we hear & in producing them, this stored info. is translated into motor commands needed to produce them.
Stuttering as a Reduced Capacity for Inverse Internal Model Theory
Who is associated with the Inverse Internal Model Theory?
Neilson & Neilson
Producing an utterance according to the Inverse Internal Model Theory requires:
Generating "Inverse Model"
Sending "Efference Copy"
Comparing auditory feedback to efference copy
Updating Inverse Model as needed to produce the desired output
__________ of beginning stuttering results from inability to make and use "inverse" internal models of the speech production system.
What observations/speculations did Neilson & Neilson report in the Inverse Internal Model Theory?
S might have weakness in learning rel. bet. intended sounds and req. movements
Abnormal patterns in the Sensorimotor Integration area
*"Covert Repair" hypothesis
*Dyssynchrony of Cerebral lan. functions
*Dyssynchrony in R. & L. Hemispheres
are all examples of stuttering as a _______ ________ Deficit.
Language Production Deficit
*Unstable Neuromuscular system
are all examples of stuttering _______ ______.
This theory's premise is that a child's normal disfluencies cause parental reactions that result in attempts to avoid anxious parental reactions and in doing so causes stuttering.
Interaction Hypothesis states stuttering results from interaction among 3 factors:
Degree of disfluency
Listener's Sensitivity to disfluency
The quote "Stuttering is caused by communicative failure as perceived by the child." is from what theory?
Communicative Failure and Anticipatory Struggle
Who is associate with the theory Communicative Failure and Anticipatory Struggle?
What are factors that may contribute to the child's belief that "speech is difficult?"
This theory combines constitutional predisposition interacting with environmental pressures.
Capacities and Demands theory
Reduced capacites may stem from:
Demands may stem from:
Rapid Development (within)
Environmental Pressures (without)
This psychology driven theory emphasizing the learning environment is based off of research in animal behavior where rat was measured on its approach vs. avoidance gradient in regard to food/electrocution.
Who is associated with the Approach-Avoidance Conflict theory?
In the Approach-Avoidance Conflict theory, stuttering occurs when stutterer's _______ to speak and their ______ of speaking are equal.
In regard to Capacities & Demands, who said: "Whether one will become a stutterer depends on one's neurological capacity...and the demand posed by the speech act."
Andrews et. al
In regard to Capacities & Demands, who said: "a child who has begun to stutter is probably a child who has had too many demands placed on him while receiving too little support"
Who explained stuttering onset & development are based off of the concepts of capacities and demands illustrated by parents asking questions rapidly, interrupting frequently, & using complex sentences choked with big words and are impatient.
This theory includes the influence of classical and operant conditioning learning models.
Conditioned Disintegration or "Two-Factor Theory"
Who is associated with the Conditioned Disintegration or "Two-Factor Theory?"
Brutten & Shoemaker
Factor I of the "Two-Factor Theory" deals with ________ conditioned negative emotions (anxiety) that become increasingly associated w/ speech associated cues (listener, words, situations).
Factor I of the "Two-Factor Theory" deals with ________ conditioned secondary features conditioned through negative reinforcement (avoidance/escape).
Experimentally controlled stuttering through negative reinforcement consequences (105 dB blast).
Operant Behavior Theory
What are names associated with Stuttering as an Operant Behavior?
Flanagan, Goldaimond, & Azrin
Shames & Sherrick
Process whereby normal nonfluencies evolve (are shaped) into stutterings through progressive cycles of negative reinforcement. (Microscopic abnormalities in fluent speech may reflect this "shaping" process)
Stuttering as an Operant Behavior
Repetitions while "manding" resulting in listener's eventual attention/action
Repetition while "pleading" to evoke sympathy
are examples of what type of Operant Influences?