1. ____ regulate salt and water balance by controlling kideny excretions of potassium and sodium retention.
    1. glucocorticoids
    2. minerocorticoids
    2. minerocorticoids
  2. Glucocorticoids regulate ______ metabilism.
  3. And adrenal medulla secretes ______ and ________.
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  4. The hormonal secretions of the pituitary gland are controlled by the?
  5. Oxytocin is secreted by the _____ pituitary gland and causes ______________.
    • posterior
    • contraction of smooth muscle
  6. The ________ is a butterfly-shaped gland consisting of two lobes.
  7. The ______ glands are the glands responsible for controlling levels of blood calcium and phosphate.
  8. _______ is a common endocrine disorder when beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fail to secrete insulin.
    Diabetes mellitus
  9. Hyperfunction of the pituitary gland (nontumorous) is most often the cause of __________.
    cushing's syndrome
  10. Endocrine glands possess?
    no ducts
  11. What are the endocrine glands?
    • pituitary
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • adrenal
    • pancreas (both endocrine and exocrine)
    • sex glands
    • thymus
  12. Adrenal gland secretions. Cotex? Medulla?
    • Cortex- steriod hormones, sex hormones
    • Medulla- epinephrine and norepinephrine
  13. Path? Excess production of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex (raises blood sugar), lipid levels increase, obesity of trunk, buffalo hump, moon shaped face?
    cushing's syndrome (hyperadrenalism)
  14. Hyperadrenalism is also called?
    cushings syndrome
  15. Hypoadrenalism is also called?
    addisons disease
  16. Path? Adrenal insufficiency caused by atrophy of adrenal cortex, fails to secrete aldosterone, pt unable to retain salt and water, hyperpigmentation over joints?
    addisons disease (hypoadrenalism)
  17. Adrenal carcinomas metastasis to?
    lymp nodes and liver
  18. ______ is the 2nd most common malignancy in children.
    Neuroblastoma (of adrenal medullary origin)
  19. It is important to differentiate _________ (adrenal origin) from _______ tumor which is a urinary system disease.
    • Neuroblastoma
    • Wilm's
  20. With neuroblastoms vs Wilm's tumor, which disease is more likely to show calcifications?
  21. What is the hypophysis also called?
    pituitary gland
  22. The anterior portion of the pituitary gland communicated with the ______ of the brain and secretes _____ and _____.
    • hypothalamus
    • growth hormone and sex hormones
  23. The anterior portion of the pituitary gland ____ hormones whereas the posterior portion ________ hormones.
    • secretes
    • stores for further use
  24. _____ portion of the pituitary gland receives hormones from the hypothalamus which travels over nerve fibers and stores hormones for further use.
    posterior (called neurohypophysis)
  25. ADH (antidiretic hormone) is stored in the _____ lobe of the pituitary and increases the rate of _____ reabsorption in the renal tubules.
    • posterior
    • water/electrolyter
  26. Oxytocin is stored in the _____ lobe of the pituitary and causes smooth muscle _______, especially in the uterus.
    • posterior
    • contraction
  27. Hyperpituitarism produces ____ and _____.
    • gigantism
    • acromegally
  28. Gigantism is excess growth hormone ____ puberty.
    Acromegally is excessive growth hormone ____ puberty.
    • before
    • after
  29. Diabetes ______ is caused by the absence of ADH.
  30. Polyuria and polydipsia are symptoms of?
    • diabetes insipidis
    • polyuria= large amounts of diluted urine
    • polydipsia= very thirsty all the time
  31. Creatinism is caused by _______ of thyroid hormone (from birth) which can lead to a dwarf with stalky features.
    insufficient production
  32. Myxedema is adult onset __________.
  33. _____ disease is the most common type of hyperthyroidism which usually effects women 3-50yrs old.
  34. What is exophthalmos, and what disease is it linked to?
    • outward protrusion of the eyes,
    • graves disease
  35. What is a goiter?
    enlargment of thyroid gland
  36. Most common type of thyroid cancer?
    papillary carcinoma
  37. Parathormone is responsible for regulating blood levels of ______ and _______ and are secreted by the ______ glands.
    • calcium and phosphate
    • parathyroid glands
  38. Note: Increased PTH secretion causes osteoclasts to remove bone. PTH secretion is controlled by calcium levels in the blood.
  39. Endocrine function of the pancreas is to control glucose levels by secreting _______ and ________.
    Insulin and glucagon
  40. Insulin _____ blood sugar.
    lowers. Is secreted by beta cells in the islets of langerhans
  41. Glucagon _____ blood glucose.
    raises. Is secreted by apha cells in the islets of Langerhans
  42. Hyperglycemia (Diabetes Mellitus): two types?
    insulin dependant (more serious), noninsulin dependant (usually later in life)
  43. Renal disease is the leading cause of death with _________.
    diabetes mellitus
  44. Path? Hyperglycemic, too much glucagone, skin and tongue dry, fruity asitone breath, pt drowsy and lethargic before onset, can lead to coma and death, requires a large dose of insulin.
    diabetic coma
  45. Path? Hypoglycemic, too much insulin, shallow breathing, pt sweats a lot, normal breath odor.
    Insulin shock
  46. The modality of choice to determine the function of the thyroid for both palpable and nonpalpable nodules is?
    Nuc Med
  47. What are the three types of thyroid carcinomas?
    • papillary (most common)
    • follicular
    • medullary
  48. vasopressin is also known as?
  49. What is the master gland that is controlled by the hypothalamus?
  50. A lack of insulin prevents glucose from entering cells?
    diabetes mellitus
  51. Excessive production of thyroxine?
    hyperthyroidism (thyroxine- iodine)
  52. Kidney's inablility to conserve water, resulting in low blood levels of ADH.
    Diabetes insipidis
  53. _____ predominantly affects females symptomatically as nervousness, emotional liability, and inability to sleep.
    Graves disease
  54. The gland that controls the level of secretion of gonadal and thyroid hormones and production of GH is the _____ gland.
  55. An enlargemtn of the thyroid gland that is not inflammatory or neoplastic is?
    a goiter
  56. The thyroid carcinoma that closely mimics normal thyroid tissue is the _____ type.
  57. Common manifestations of diabetes ______ are polyuria, polydipsia, and glycosuria.
  58. The hormones regulating carbohydrate metabolism are

    A. glucocorticoids
  59. The most common cause of hypoadrenalism is?
    steriod administration
  60. Diabetes mellitus is a result of the ____ failing to produce _____.
    • pancreas
    • insulin
  61. The adrenal cortex secretes?
    sex hormones and steroids
  62. The adrenal medulla secretes?
    Epi and norepi
  63. Hyperadrenalism (_____) syndrome is an excess production of ___________.
    • cushing's
    • glucocorticoid hormones
  64. Hypoadrenalism (_______) disease, adrenals fail to secrete ________.
    • Addison's
    • aldosterone
  65. Diabetes insipidus is caused by the absence of _______.
    ADH, antidiretic hormone
  66. Creatinism is caused by insufficient production of _______ hormone.
  67. Myxedema is adult onset __________.
  68. Graves disease is caused by an excess production of ______ hormone.
  69. A simple goiter is caused by the thyroid gland's inability to produce ________ hormone.
    thyroxine (lack of iodine)
  70. Toxic goiter is caused by the tyroid's overproduction of?
    thyroid hormone (accumulation of iodine causes enlargement)
  71. Parathyroid glands secrete _________ which is responsible for regulating blood levels of calcium and phosphate.
    parathormone (PTH)- closed loop feed back
  72. Glucagone _____ blood sugar and may also be given during _____.
    • raises
    • BE's to relax cramping and spasms
  73. Normal creatine levels?
    Normal BUN levels?
    • Creatine = 0.7-1.4
    • BUN= 10-22
Card Set
Final RF tst Wtr qtr