Straight Thinking

  1. What is Philosophy?
    • Literally, "loving knowledge/wisdom"
    • Investigation of truths & principles of knowledge, conduct and being.

    "An unusually stubborn attempt to think clearly about the basic issues of life."
  2. What is Metaphysics?
    Ultimate Reality
  3. What is Epistemology?
    How we can do. How we know.
  4. What is Ontology?
    The nature of ultimate reality
  5. What is Aixology?
    Basic Values
  6. What is Ethics?
    Right conduct
  7. What is Aesthetics?
  8. What is Anthropology?
  9. What is Politics?
    Social Organization
  10. What is Logic/ Reason?
    Right Thinking
  11. Who are the BIG three?
    • Socrates
    • Plato
    • Aristotle
  12. Socrates :
    • "The unexplained life is not worth living."
    • Socratic method: dialectic, struggle for truth through dialogue

    Atheist who believes in God.

    Apology, Crito & Phaedo [ the hemlock ]
  13. Plato:
    " Everything in philosophy since Plato is merely a footnote to Plato"

    • Alfred Norh Whitehead.
    • Taught "eternal ideas".
    • Forms, Universials, the Logos; the Allegory of the cave [ shadows= matter, nature]

    a "World Soul" [ Universal Force ] or Demiurge [ intermediary creator ]

    The Doctrine of Reminiscence; philosopher kings.
  14. Aristotle:
    • Agreed with Plato. No particulars without forms, but Universals, Forms, etc.
    • Not the only reality; study of particulars [ science ] is dialectic opportunity to know Forms, Universals;
    • Shadows have significance.
  15. Straight Thinking:
    Aristotle's Thinking Tool.

    • Three Laws; Identity A = A;
    • Contradiction A cannot be A and Not A
    • Excluded middle: Everything is either A or not A.
  16. Syllogism:
    verbal devices that so organizes two propositions that a third, a conclusion, follows necessarily

    Premise and Proposition
  17. Premise
    statement or proposition which supports a conclusion: Major & Minor Premise
  18. Proposition:
    A statement which is either true or false
  19. Conclusion
    logical of premises and propositions
  20. Logic:
    From logos:

    the science of correct/ valid reasoning; conclusions from facts, ideas, evidence
  21. Reason [ rationality] :
    To think correctly; sound judgement
  22. True Evidence/Data
    A valid relationship/connection between evidence/premise & conclusion
  23. Improper Relationship
    A fallacy; fallacious reasoning
  24. Greeks:

    Were first to formally investigate & establish standard reasoning
  25. Sophists:
    Deliberately shifted from valid arguments to subtle. "tricky" & insincere arguments; "sophistry"
  26. Early Renaissance [ Aristotelian Revival ]
    Gave Latin names to types of fallacious reasoning

  27. "Common Logic"

    Language Analysis
    Is language an innate gift of the Creator for his special creation?

    Is the propostiion or statement true or false; fact or opinion: need to seek verification
  28. Grammatical Construction

    Allows propositions to be presented logically
  29. Logical Connectors
    words or inferred/implied words indicate the direction of the argument
  30. Indicate a reason:
    For, since, because, etc
  31. Indicate a conclusion
    so, therefore, thus etc
  32. Interference:
    unsaid, the logical conclusion of a rational mind.
  33. Evaluating Argument
    Are the facts,evidence, true; verifiable?

    Is the reasoning process sound [ valid ]?
  34. Deductive
    Starts with Major Premise, "truth"; if a valid connection the conclusion follows necessarily
  35. Inductive:
    Starts with gathering evidence; if convincing & logical connection it is probably true

    Most knowledge is "probable"
  36. Francis Bacon [ 1600 ]
    We over-rely on deductive; need more inductive [ scientific research ]

    "count the teeth"
  37. Ambiguity
    Number of senses & meanings & sound a like

    Controlled by conventional usage [ its technical meaning ] & through its context [ verbal environment ]

    Occurs when doubt is in context

    Sometimes intended for humorous effect, a pun, or to deliberately mislead, equivocation

    Maybe caused by grammar
  38. 3 Problems of Ambiguity
    Unintended Humor; Question Regarding the Meaning; Mistaken Meaning
  39. Equivocation
    When the meaning of a word is deliberately changed in the course of an argument or discussion with deceptive purpose

    "I did not have sex with that woman."
  40. Vagueness
    Statement is not clear; caused by indefiniteness [ "Some guy said you need to call him"];

    Undefined Degree [ "She's a pretty good musician" ]

    Obscurity- was not clear what was said
  41. Obscurity
    Can be used by euphemism, a term that lessens negative impact

    Mumbling- unclear speech

    Gobbledegook- obfuscation

    deliberately and complicated language
Card Set
Straight Thinking
Western Civ