1. Evolution
    The processes that have transformed life on earth from it's earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today.

    • -Common Descent with Modification
    • -Natural Selection
  2. Common Descent
    Where a species can undergo modification throughout generations.
  3. Natural selection
    Traits that give an organism an advantage are "selected" for by nature.

    -individuals with favorable traits are more likely to leave more offspring better suited for their environment.
  4. Charles Lyell
    Noted dynamic geologic nature of the Earth

    -Changes still occuring today
  5. Jean-Baptiste de LaMark
    "the inheritance of acquired characterics"
  6. Georges Cuvier
    Noted extinction of some species on Earth and the apperance of others within different time-frames

    • Earth affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent event, possibly worldwide in scope.
  7. Voyage on the ship HMS Beagle
    Collected many different species and varieties of animals. fouund two main points from the journey

    1. species were not created in their present form, but evolved from ancestral species.

    2. proposed a mechanism for evolution: NATURAL SELECTION
  8. Darwin's Insights
    Understood descent with modification for several years before.

    -2 yrs after returning, figured out that natural selection was driving the changes.
  9. Why is natural selction controversial?
    It was accepted based on modernization of evolution.

    • -genetics
    • -fossil record
    • -distrubution of organisms
  10. Alfred Russel Wallace
    English naturalist is the co-discoverer of natural seledction as the principal process underlying evolution.
  11. What are the 6 lines of evidence in the Modern synthesis of Evolutionary Theory?
    • -Radiometric dating
    • -Fossils
    • -Comparative morphology and embryology
    • -Biogeographical evidence (island biogeography)
    • -Evidence from gene modification
    • -experimental evidence
  12. radiometric dating
    • Technique that determines the age of objects by measuring the decay of radioactive elements in them.
    • ( radioactive elements emit energetic rays during decay)

    This technique has confirmed the age of the earth to be 4.6 billion years old.
  13. Fossils
    fossils from same evolutionary periods are found together in same geologic strata
  14. Comparative morphology and Embryology
    explains common occurrence of homologous physical structures in different organisms

    MORPHOLOGY: study of the physical forms that an organism takes

    EMBRYOLOGY: study of how animals develop from fertilization to birth
  15. Biogeography
    Island biogeography-geographic distribution of species on islands (is explained by the theory of evolution)
  16. Gene modification
    Variations in DNA sequences of various organisms are consistent with evolutionary theory
  17. Experimental evidence
    experimental demonstrations of evolution have been carried out in the laboratory and in nature
  18. Miconceptions of evolution and religion
    Many people believe that you have to choose between science and religion. although some idea contradict one another most people prefer to be in touch with science, it makes them closer to their religion.
Card Set
Chapter 16 of bio