1. Cryptography
    science of encrypting or hiding information
  2. transposition cipher
    same letters used but order is changed
  3. shift cipher
    • one letter is shifted a set number of places
    • -e.g. ROT13 shifts everything 13 places
  4. cryptanalysis
    the process of analyzing available information in an attempt to return the encrypted message to its original form
  5. differential cryptanalysis
    comparing the input plaintext to teh output cipher text to try to determine the key
  6. Linear Cryptanalysis
    comparing plaintext to cipher text, but puts the plaintext through a simplified cipher to try and deduce what the key is likely to be in teh full version of the cipher
  7. algorithm
    • Step by Step, recursive computational procedure for solving a problem in a finite # of steps
    • The best algorithms are public and peer reviewed
  8. key
    • special piece of data used in both teh encryption and decryption processes.
    • the algorithms stay the same in every implementation, but a different key is used for each.
  9. substitution cipher
    • substitute a different random letter for every letter
    • -due to the ease of breaking shift ciphers
  10. Vigennere cipher or Polyalphabetic substitution cipher
    • links the cipher with a password. if the password is not long enough, the password is repeated until one character of the password is matched up with each character of the plaintext. Then apply to a grid where the plaintext is row and the password is column
    • -
  11. keyspace
    The size of every possible key-value. When an algorithm lists a certain number of bits as a key it is defining the keyspace.
  12. DES - Data Encryption Standard
    • uses a 56-bit key, allowing 72 x 10^15 possible values.
    • -broken by modern computers
  13. DES
    • 1976 adopted as federal standard
    • uses a 128bit key or 340 x10^36 possible values.
    • 128 bits is generally accepted as the minimum required to protect sensitive information
    • Recertified in 1983 and 1993.
    • Block Cipher-
  14. Block Cipher
    segments the input data into blocks of a specified size, typically padding the last block to make it a multiple of the block size required
  15. key management
    • anything having to do with the exchange, storage, safeguarding, and revocation of keys.
    • most commonly associated with asymetric encryption or use of public and private keys.
  16. one time pad ciphers
    • The keys are equal to the of the messages they protect and completely random must be used for the keys.
    • this allows for an unlimited keyspace and therefore brute force attack is practically impossible.
  17. XOR
    • A logical function to perform encipherment. Uses binary.
    • e.g. 11011100 XOR 11111110(or 254) is 00100010.
    • compare the individual digits, if the same then the encrypted data is a 0, if different then 1
  18. Hashing
    • a special mathematical functio nthat performs one-way encryption.
    • i.e. once the algorithm is processed there is no feasible way to use the ciphertext to retrieve the plaintext that was used to generate it.
    • also ideally there is no way to ggenerate two different plaintexts that compute to the same hash value.
  19. collision attack
    wherein an attacker finds two different messages that hash to the same value.
  20. Hash Algorithms
    • SHA - Secure Hashing Algorithm
    • MD2, 4, or 5: Message Digest 2, 4, or 5
  21. SHA
    • Secure Hash Algorithm
    • uses a MD @ a particular bit length.
    • Included in the Federal Information Processing Standars 180-2, or FIPS 180-2
    • Consists of SHA -1, 256, 384, 512.
    • Latter variants are occasionally referred to as SHA-2
  22. SHA-1
    • Developed in 1993
    • MD @ 160 bit
    • Modeled on the MD4 Algorithm
    • Input less than 2^64
    • 32bit string converted to hex and formed into 16 words
    • -words make a 512 bit block. padded if not enough to make 512
  23. SHA-256
    • Similar to SHA-1
    • 2^64 bit input or less
    • 256 bit hash
    • uses 64 32 bit words, 8 working variables
    • more secure than SHA-1, but the attac basis for SHA-1 can produce collisions in SHA-256
  24. SHA-384
    • 2128 bits of input
    • pads that to 1024 blocks
    • 64-bit words
    • 6 x64bit words to produce 284bit hash
  25. SHA-512
    • same as 384
    • uses 8 64 bit words for final hash of 512
  26. Message Digest
    • generric verrsion of one of several algorithms designed to create a hash or message digest(MD)
    • Ronald L Rivest of MIT
  27. MD-2
    • 1989
    • takes a data input of any length and produces a hash output of 128 bits.
    • optimized for 8 bit machines
    • inputs padded to be multiples of 16 bytes, then checksum is appended to the message
    • only known successful attack requires the checksum not be appended before the hash is run
    • some collision attacks are based on the algorithm's Initialization Vector(IV)
  28. MD4
    • 1990
    • optimized for 32 bit computers
    • fast algorithm but subject to more attacks than MD5
    • padded to 512 bits, which is then concatenated with representation of message's orginal length
    • Then divided into 16 words of 32 bits.
    • Hans Dobbertin has shown how collisions can be found in under a minute using only a PC
    • most people are moving away from this to MD5 or SHA
  29. MD5
    • 1991
    • creates a 128bit hash of a message of any length
    • original message is padded to be 64 bits short of a multiple off 512 bits, then a 64 bit representation
  30. Symetric Encryption
    • both sender and receiver have previously obtained a copy of the same key
    • Common symmetric algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES, IDEA, Blowfish, CAST, RC2, RC4, RC5, RC6
  31. 3DES or Triple DES
    • DES : Data Encryption Standard
    • runs through the DES algorithm 3 times
  32. AES
    • Advanced Encryption Standard
    • block cipher using symmetric key encryption
    • key sizes: 128, 192, 256
    • Core is Rijndael, chosen for good performance and good overall security
  33. CAST
    • Designed by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares
    • uses 64 bit block size for 64 and 128 bit key, 128 bit block version for 256 bit key
    • Operated on for 8 rounds
  34. RC
    • General term for several ciphers created by Ron Rivest
    • Rivest Cipher
    • RC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. But RC3 never made a release
  35. RC2
    • variable key size: 8 - 1024 bit with fixed block size of 64 bits
    • up to 3 times faster than DES
    • Any key length below 64 bits can be easily retrieved with modern computing power
  36. RC5
    • 1994
    • multiple variable elements, numbers of rounds, key sizes and block sizes.
    • for security recommend at least 12 rounds.
    • differential analysis fails for 15 or more rounds
  37. RC6
    • based on RC5
    • 20 rounds
    • 3 possible key-sizes: 128, 192, 256
    • with sufficient rounds the algorithm makes both linear and differential crypanalysis infeasible
  38. RC4
    • Stream Cipher: works by enciphering the plaintext in a stream
    • Fast: sometimes 10 times faster than DES
    • 1 key in 256 can generate bytes closely correlated with key bytes
  39. Blowfish
    • 1994 Bruce Schneider
    • block-mode
    • 16 rounds-no weakness in the full 16 - round version
  40. IDEA
    • Inernational Data Encryption ALgorithm
    • Started as PES 1990, modified to improve differential cryptanalysis
    • 1992 became IDEA
    • 8 rounds with 4 additional steps
  41. Asymmetric Encryption
    • uses two keys instead of one
    • invented by Diffie and Hellman in 1975
    • aka Public Key Cryptography
    • Uses a private key-kept secret and a public key- that can be sent to anyone
    • Diffie/Helman, RSA, ECC(Eliptic Curve Cryptography), and ElGamal
  42. RSA
    • one of the first public key cryptosystems 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman
    • Uses the product of two very large prime numbers, P & Q of 100 to 200 digits
    • Choose a random encryption key E which is less than P*Q, must be odd and relatively prime
    • Security has withstood 20 years of testing
  43. electronic key exchange
    exchanging the symmetric or shared secret using the slower protocol of public key
  44. Diffie/Hellman
    • Most common protocols in use today
    • Plays a role in the Electronic Key Exchange of SSL protocol
  45. ElGamal
    • used as the US Govt standard for digital signatures
    • uses logarithms
  46. ECC
    • Elliptic Curve Cryptography
    • uses two numbers to plot a point on the curve
  47. Steganography
    • comes from Greek Steganos or covered.
    • Involves hiding numbers in pictures using the RGB color one could put a 128kb message in a MegaPixel pic
    • used by porn and terrorists(maybe)
  48. Cryptography Algorithm Use in Relation to CIA-AN
    • Confidentiality
    • Integrity
    • Nonrepudiation
    • Authentication
  49. Key Escrow
    • a system by which your private key is kept both by you and by the government
    • requires a court order to access it
  50. Cryptographic Apps
    • PGP:
    • True Crypt:
    • FreeOTFE
    • GnuPG
Card Set
CIS 3500 Test 1