IR and the Sea 3/3

  1. Mirine Envirionment - standards
    • shift over time
    • leads the way for terrestrial environment
  2. how does the marine environmnet standards shift over time?
    • from 'not knowing pollute'
    • to due dilligence
  3. what does due dilligence mean
    you have to know the laws
  4. when was the trail smelter case
  5. when was the corfu channel case
  6. Trail Smelter Case - 1941
    • fumes from smelter in Canada cause damage in US
    • 1s International law case on pollution
    • ICJ uses US law as basis - no precident in international law
    • finding: No state can cause injury in another state
  7. Corfu Channel Case - 1946
    • Albania and Corsica across from each other
    • British trip through channel causes problems
  8. 3 incidents in 1946
    • brittish in straight fired on from shore
    • on 2nd passage 2 ships strike mines
    • Brittish clear mines in albanian waters
  9. ICJ Decisions
    • 1st - was innocent
    • 2nd - Albania owed brittian damages for ships hitting mine; should have warned mariners of hazards in waters
    • 3rd - Brittish mine clearing in albanian waters was illegal
    • finally got resolved 2 years ago - finally repirations paid
    • standard of pollution
  10. Corfu Channel Case OUtcomes
    • Albania was wrong not to warn of danger caused by mines in it's waters
    • states have a duty to ensure environmental hazards are warned
  11. UNCLOSE I 1958
    • discharge of oil from ships or piplines
    • radioactive waste - started building nuclear powered subs
    • continental shelf opperations must protect living resources
  12. 1978 Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environmnet
    • "states shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas"
    • "states may not cause damage to the environmnet of other states or of areas beyond their national jursidiction"
    • toxic materials from land or atmosphere
    • pollution from ships
    • contintal shelf opperations
  14. toxic materials from land or atmosphere
    • river go into mexico
    • hot water - destroy marine environmnet
    • atmosphere - fossil fuel power plants
  15. where does hot water come from
    nuclear powered plants
  16. continental shelf operations
    • oil
    • off coast of Africa many more serious oils spills, just no press
  17. Standards of pollution
    • regional or global
    • LDC's - you got ahead because you had no standards
  18. Exxon Valdez - 1989
    • trying to stop oil
    • still trying to clean up
  19. Ship Pollution
    • pumping billages
    • cary a lot of feul
    • can get within 24 miles
    • oily bilges
    • became very serious with lots of ships
  20. cary a lot of feul
    • as it burns fuel = less balast
    • take feul down low doesn't come back up
    • take in ballast - salt water in feul tank
    • need to pump out salt water to put in more feul
  21. Cruise Ship Pollution
    • black water
    • gray water
    • solid waste
    • hazardous materials
    • ballast
    • bilges
  22. balck water
  23. greywater
    • dishwater
    • basisns
    • soaps
    • chemicals
  24. soild waste
    eg toss a champange bottle
  25. What makes cruse ships dangerous polutants and examples
    • when they congregate in places
    • haze in alaska and amsterdam
    • key west
  26. USS Seawolf
    • sodumn cooled nuclear reactor proved unsafe and was dumped at sea off Delaware bay in 1959
    • largest radioactive object ever dumped
    • subsequent attmepst to find it were unsuccesful
  27. Freedom of Navigation
    • warship immunity
    • boarding and sizure
  28. warship immunity
    • military personel
    • only flag state has jurisdiction over warship
    • many bound in territorial seas/contiguous zone
  29. boarding and seizure
    • slavery, piracy, narcotics, broadcasting
    • no flage
    • flage of same state
  30. overflight of high seas
    • air defense and identification zone
    • can be asked ot identify yourself
  31. What does ADIZ stand for?
    Air defense and identification zone
  32. Submarine cables
    • still used
    • most of internet
    • a lot of law about not interfearing with cables
  33. SOSUS Cables
    • underwater listening cables - microphones
    • most audio technology
    • find info in previous audio
    • still around
  34. Scientfic Research
    • ABE - automatic benthic exploer
    • share this technology
    • want to forbid exploration in benthic EEZ
  35. What is ABE
    automatic benthic exploer
Card Set
IR and the Sea 3/3
IR and the Sea 3/3