bio ch 8 vocab

  1. absorption
    taking in of substances by cells or membranes
  2. anorexia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by a morbid fear of gaining weight.
  3. anus
    outlet of the digestive tract.
  4. appendix
    in humans, small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine.
  5. bile
    secretion of the liver temporarily stored and concentrated in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine, where it emulsifies fat.
  6. binge-eating disorder
    condition characterized by overeating episodes that are not followed by purging.
  7. body mass index (BMI)
    calculation used to determine whether a person is overweight or obese.
  8. bolus
    small lump of food that has been chewed and swallowed.
  9. bulimia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging via self-induced vomiting or use of a laxative.
  10. cecum
    small pouch that lies below the entrance of the small intestine and is the blind end of the large intestine.
  11. cholesterol
    form of lipid: structural component of plasma membrane, precursor for steroid hormones.
  12. chyme
    thick, semiliquid food material that passes from the stomach to the small intestine.
  13. cirrhosis
    chronic, irreversible injury to liver tissue; commonly caused by frequent alcohol consumption.
  14. colon
    the major portion of the large intestine, consisting of the ascending colon, the transverse colon, and the descending colon.
  15. constipation
    delayed and difficult defecation caused by insufficient water in the feces.
  16. defacation
    discharge of feces from the rectum through the anus.
  17. dental caries
    tooth decay that occurs when bacteria within the mouth metabolize sugar and give off acids that erode teeth; a cavity.
  18. diaphragm
    dome-shaped horizontal sheet of muscle and connective tissue that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. also, a birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix.
  19. diarrhea
    excessively frequent bowel movements
  20. digestion
    breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed.
  21. diverticulosis
    a condition in which portions of the digestive tract mucosa have pushed through other layers of the tract forming pouches where food may collect.
  22. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine where chyme enters from the stomach.
  23. elimination
    process of expelling substances from the body.
  24. epiglottis
    structure that covers the glottis during the process of swallowing.
  25. esophagus
    muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach.
  26. essential amino acids
    amino acids required in the human diet because the body cannot make them.
  27. essential fatty acids
    fatty acid required in the human diet because the body cannot make them.
  28. fiber
    structure resembling a thread; also, plant material that is non digestable.
  29. gallbladder
    organ attached to the liver that serves to store and concentrate bile.
  30. gallstone
    crystalline bodies formed by concentration of normal and abnormal bile components within the gallbladder.
  31. gastric gland
    glad within the stomach wall that secretes gastric juice.
  32. glottis
    opening for airflow in the larynx.
  33. glycemic index (GI)
    blood glucose response of a given food
  34. hard palate
    bony, anterior portion of the roof of the mouth.
  35. heartburn
    burning pain in the chest that occurs when part of the stomach contents escape into the esophagus.
  36. hemorrhoid
    abnormally dilated blood vessels of the rectum.
  37. hepatitus
    inflammation of the liver. viral hepatitis occurs in several forms.
  38. hormone
    chemical signal produced by one set of cells that affects a different set of cells.
  39. hydrolyze
    to break a chemical bond between molecules by insertion of a water molecule.
  40. ingestion
    the taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth.
  41. jaundice
    yellowish tint to the skin caused by abnormal amount of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood, indicating liver malfunction.
  42. lacteal
    lymphatic vessel in an intestinal villus; it aids in the absorption of lipids.
  43. lactose intolerance
    inability to digest lactose because of an enzyme deficiency.
  44. large intestine
    last major portion of the digestive tract, extending from the small intestine to the anus and consisting of the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anal canal.
  45. lipase
    fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
  46. liver
    large, dark red internal organ that produces urea and bile, detoxifies the blood, stores glycogen, and produces the plasma proteins, among other functions.
  47. lumen
    cavity inside any tubular structure, such as the lumen of the digestive tract.
  48. mineral
    naturally occurring inorganic substance containing two or more elements; certain minerals are needed in the diet.
  49. movement
  50. mucosa
    membrane that lines tubes and body cavities that open to the outside of the body; mucous membrane.
  51. muscle dysmorphia
    mental state where a person thinks his or her body is underdeveloped and becomes preoccupied with body-building and diet; affects more men than women.
  52. muscularis
    two layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract.
  53. nutrient
    chemical substances in foods that are essential to the diet and contribute to good health.
  54. obesity
    excess adipose tissue; exceeding ideal weight by more than 20%.
  55. osteoporosis
    condition in which bones break easily because calcium is removed from them faster than it is replaced.
  56. pancreas
    internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
  57. pancreatic amylase
    enzyme in the pancreas that digests starch to maltose
  58. pepsin
    enzyme secreted by gastric glands that digests proteins to peptides.
  59. periodontitis
    inflammation of the periodontal membrane that lines tooth sockets, causing loss of bone and loosening of teeth.
  60. peristalsis
    wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure, such as the esophagus.
  61. peritonitis
    generalized infection of the lining of the abdominal cavity.
  62. pharynx
    portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus that serves as a passageway for food and also for air on its way to the trachea.
  63. polyp
    small abnormal growth that arises from the epithelial lining.
  64. rectum
    terminal end of the digestive tube between the sigmoid colon and the anus.
  65. rugae
    deep folds, as in the wall of the stomach
  66. salivary amylase
    secreted from the salivary glands; the first enzyme to act on starch.
  67. salivary gland
    gland associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
  68. serosa
    membrane that covers internal organs and lines cavities without an opening to the outside of the body.
  69. small intestine
    long, tubelike chamber of the digestive tract between the stomach and large intestine
  70. soft palate
    entirely muscular posterior portion of the roof of the mouth
  71. sphincter
    muscle that surrounds a tube and closes or opens the tube by contracting and relaxing.
  72. stomach
    muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juices to form chyme, which enters the small intestine.
  73. submucosa
    layer of connective tissue underneath a mucous membrane.
  74. trypsin
    protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
  75. urea
    primary nitrogenous waste of humans derived from amino acid breakdown.
  76. vermiform appendix
    small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine.
  77. villus
    small, finger like projection of the inner small intestinal wall.
  78. vitamin
    essential requirement in the diet, needed in small amounts. they are often part of coenzymes.
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bio ch 8 vocab