Describe Laser Printer
A laser printer is a high-quality, fast printer that uses a laser beam to create an image. The central part of the laser printer is its electrophotographic drum. The drum is a metal cylinder that is coated with a light-sensitive insulating material. When a beam of laser light strikes the drum, it becomes a conductor at the point where the light hits it. As the drum rotates, the laser beam draws an electrostatic image upon the drum, called the image. The undeveloped or latent image is passed by a supply of dry ink or toner that is attracted to it. The drum turns and brings this image in contact with the paper, which attracts the toner from the drum. The paper is passed through a fuser that is made up of hot rollers, which melts the toner into the paper.
The laser printer process involves six steps to print information onto a single sheet of paper.
The following mnemonic will help you to memorize the order of the steps of the laser printing process: Continuous Care Will Delay Trouble Forever (Cleaning, Conditioning, Writing, Developing, Transferring, Fusing).
Step 1: Cleaning
When an image has been deposited on the paper and the drum has separated from the paper, any remaining toner must be removed from the drum. A printer may have a blade that scrapes all excess toner from the drum. Some printers use an AC voltage on a wire that removes the charge from the drum surface and allows the excess toner to fall away from the drum. The excess toner is stored in a used toner container that may be emptied or discarded.
Step 2: Conditioning
This step involves removing the old latent image from the drum and conditioning the drum for a new latent image. Conditioning is done by placing a special wire, grid, or roller that receives a negative charge of approximately – 600 volts DC uniformly across the surface of the drum. The charged wire or grid is called the primary corona. The roller is called a conditioning roller.
Step 3: Writing
The writing process involves scanning the photosensitive drum with the laser beam. Every portion of the drum that is exposed to the light has the surface charge reduced to about – 100 volts DC. This electrical charge has a lower negative charge than the remainder of the drum. As the drum turns, an invisible latent image is created on the drum.
Step 4: Developing
In the developing phase, the toner is applied to the latent image on the drum. The toner is a negatively-charged combination of plastic and metal particles. A control blade holds the toner at a microscopic distance from the drum. The toner then moves from the control blade to the more positively-charged latent image on the drum.
Step 5: Transferring
In this step, the toner attached to the latent image is transferred to the paper. The transfer, or secondary corona, places a positive charge on the paper. Because the drum was charged negatively, the toner on the drum is attracted to the paper. The image is now on the paper and is held in place by the positive charge.
Step 6: Fusing
In this step, the toner is permanently fused to the paper. The printing paper is rolled between a heated roller and a pressure roller. As the paper moves through the heated roller and the pressure roller, the loose toner is melted and fused with the fibers in the paper. The paper is then moved to the output tray as a printed page.
7.1.4 Describe impact printers
Impact printers are very basic printers. Impact printers have print heads that strike the inked ribbon, causing characters to be imprinted on the paper. Dot-matrix and daisy-wheel are examples of impact printers.
7.1.5 Describe inkjet printers
Inkjet printers produce high-quality prints. Inkjet printers are easy to use and inexpensive compared to laser printers. The print quality of an inkjet printer is measured in dots per inch (dpi). Higher dpi numbers provide greater image details. Inkjet printers use ink-filled cartridges that spray ink onto a page through tiny holes. The tiny holes are called nozzles. The ink is sprayed in a pattern on the page.
There are two types of inkjet nozzles?
- 1. Thermal – A pulse of electrical current is applied to heating chambers around the nozzles. The heat creates a bubble of steam in the chamber. The steam forces ink out through the nozzle and onto the paper.
- 2. Piezoelectric – Piezoelectric crystals are located in the ink reservoir at the back of each nozzle. A charge is applied to the crystal, causing it to vibrate. This vibration of the crystal controls the flow of ink onto the paper.
Name some advantages and disadvantages of an inkjet printer:
- These are some advantages of an inkjet printer:
- Low cost
- High resolution
- Quick to warm up
- Nozzles are prone to clogging.
- Ink cartridges are expensive.
- Ink is wet after printing.
7.1.6 Describe solid-ink printers
Solid-ink printers use solid sticks of ink rather than toner or ink cartridges. Solid-ink printers produce high-quality images. The ink sticks are nontoxic and can be handled safely. Solid-ink printers melt ink sticks and spray the ink through nozzles. The ink is sprayed onto a drum. The drum transfers the ink to paper.
Name some advantages and disadvantages of solid-ink printers:
- These are some advantages of solid-ink printers:
- Produces vibrant color prints
- Easy to use
- Can use many different paper types
- Disadvantages of solid-ink printers:
- Printers are expensive
- Ink is expensive
- They are slow to warm up
7.3.5 Describe Drum scanners
Drum scanners produce a high-quality transfer of an image. Drum scanners are usually used commercially but are being replaced by lower-priced, high-quality flatbed scanners. Many drum scanners are still in use for high-end reproductions, such as archiving photographs in museums. To scan an image using a drum scanner, you attach the image to a revolving drum or load it into a supporting canister. The drum is rotated at high speed across optical scanners. The optical scanners move slowly across tured. The captured image is then reproduced by the computer as a digital image filethe drum surface until the entire image is cap.
7.3.2 Describe all-in-one devices
- An all-in-one device combines the functionality of multiple devices into one physical piece of hardware. The devices may include media card readers and hard drives for storage. All-in-one devices generally include these functions: Printer, Scanner, Copier, Fax
- All-in-one devices are typically used in home-office environments or where space is limited. These devices are often used with a computer but can operate alone to copy and fax documents.
7.3.3 Describe Flatbed scanners
Flatbed scanners are often used to scan books and photographs for archiving. An electronic image is acquired by placing the book or photograph face down on the glass. The scanner head, consisting of an array of image sensors, lies beneath the glass and moves along the item, capturing the image. Sheet feeders can be used with flatbed scanners to scan multiple images. A sheet feeder is a device that can be attached to some flatbed scanners to hold multiple sheets and feed them into the scanner, one at a time. This feature allows for faster scanning; however, the image quality is usually not as good as a flatbed scanner that does not use a sheet feeder.
7.3.4 Describe handheld scanners
A handheld scanner is small and portable. It is difficult to smoothly scan an image using a handheld scanner. To scan an item, carefully pass the scanner head across the item that you want to scan. As with a flatbed scanner, digital images are made from the images collected by the handheld scanner. When you want to scan an item larger than the head of the handheld scanner, you must make more than one pass to capture the full image. It may be difficult to recreate the original image digitally when it is scanned in more than one pass. The images must be put back together to form a single image of the item that was scanned.
What is the Troubleshooting Process?
- 1. Gather Data from the Customer
- 2. Verify the Obvious Issues
- 3. Try Quick Solutions First
- 4. Gather Data from the Computer
- 5. Evaluate the Problem and Implement the Solution
- 6. Close with the Customer
Name some advantages and disadvantages of an Impact printer
- The following are some advantages of an impact printer:
- Uses inexpensive consumables
- Uses continuous feed paper
- Has carbon copy printing ability
- The following are some disadvantages of an impact printer:
- Low resolution graphics
- Limited color capability
- Slow printing, normally in the range of 32 to 76 characters per second (cps)
Name some advantages and disadvantages of Thermal Printers
- A thermal printer has the following advantage:
- Longer life because there are few moving parts
- A thermal printer has the following disadvantages:
- Paper is expensive.
- Paper has a short shelf life.
- Images are poor quality.
- Paper must be stored at room temperature
Name some advantages and disadvantages of Dye-Sublimation Printers
- Dye-sublimation printers have the following advantages:
- Printers produce high-quality images.
- Overcoat layer reduces smearing and increases moisture resistance.
- Dye-sublimation printers have the following disadvantages:
- Media can be expensive.
802.11b transfers data at a rate of?
802.11g transfers data at a rate of ?
54 Mbps 802.11g products are backwards-compatible with 802.11b.
7.2.5 Describe how to optimize printer performance
- With printers, most optimization is completed through the software supplied with the drivers.
- In the software, there are tools available to optimize performance:
- Print spool settings – Ability to cancel or pause current print jobs in the printer queue
- Color calibration – Ability to adjust settings to match the colors on the screen to the colors on the printed sheet
- Paper orientation – Ability to select landscape or portrait image layout
You have to be licensed to collect in the State of Florida and it requires a $50k cash bond that none of them pay. When they call tell them you are going to pay and get their mailing address. Send them a letter requesting a copy of the licensed to practice in the state. You will never hear from them again. They will sell it to another collector. Keep doing this for 4 years, then the SOL is up and you can tell them to pound sand.
Statute of Limitations in Florida
- Florida Statutes of Limitation
- Contract or written instrument and for mortgage foreclosure: 5 years. F.S. 95.11.
- Libel, slander, or unpaid wages: 2 years.
- Judgments: 20 years total and to be a lien on any real property, it has to be re-recorded for a second time at 10 years.
- The limitations period begins from the date the last element of the cause of action occurred, (95.051). NOTE: The limitation period is tolled (stopped) for any period during which the debtor is absent from the state and each time a voluntary payment is made on a debt arising from a written instrument.
- Almost all other actions fall under the 4-year catch-all limitations period, (F.S. 95.11(3)(p)).