Describel what Kempe meant the term battered child sysndrom
repeated intentional injuries inflected by parents
C. Kempe work led to what?
Activtism and 1974 Child Abuse and Prevention Act
What did the National Council of Child Abuse and Neglect say about the trend of Child Abuse and Neglect in the 1980s
It was on the increase
According to the Council of Child Abuse and Neglect, what was the most common form of Abuse?
According to the Council of Child Abuse and Neglect, what type of abuse are girls most likely to endure?
According to the Council of Child Abuse and Neglect, who are more at risk for serious injuries from abuse
According to the Council of Child Abuse and Neglect, what age group is more likely to see abuse
What is problematic about the Council of Child Abuse and Neglect's claim that children aged 5-11 are most likely to see abuse.
younger child abuse may not be discovered due to them not being at school yet and can't report child abuse. Older children tend to runaway or fight back instead of reporting.
What does the National Council for Child Abuse and Neglect say about racial and social status?
no difference across racial line in abuse, however, lower income is at more risk for abuse
What is meant by neglect?
disregard the physical, emotional, and moral needs of children.
What are some common characteristics of neglect?
malnurishment, without proper supervision/shelter, ill/lacking medical care, emotional neglect/not feeling loved, failure to attend school, exploiting children, emotionally disturbed, exposure to demoralizing and unwholesome circumstances.
What was Norman Polanshky known for?
Study of mothers in North Carolina and Georgia who were accused of neglect.
What categories did Norman Polansky used to describe the women in his study?
Apathetic- emotionally numb, no love, futile mother
Impulse- abadondon their kids to have fun
Mentally Retarded Mother- Doesn't understand how to mother.
Reaction-depressive Mother- Proccupied with the loss of a loved one or other tramatic exerience
Borderline/Psychotic Mother- caught up in fantasies, may forget about the children or try to include them in their fantasy
What is the greatest predictor of neglect.
What is used for the objective standard for determining abuse and/or neglect
The Child Neglect Index
What does the Child Neglect Index use for assessment?
Supervision, food/nutrition, clothing/hygiene, physical health, mental health, developmental care
define physical abuse
intentional behavior directed to a child by parents/caretakers to cause pain, injury or death
What does Murray Staus say about corporal punishment?
it is abuse, and may work short term but will not work long term. Mothers tend to hit more, works as a cycle,
What are Murray Strauss' myths of Corporal Punishment?
1) Works better than anything else
2) If you don't spank the child you will spoil them
3) It does not harm the child
Define Emotional Abuse
Lack of expressed love and attention, as well as deliberate withholding of attention or approval, Contact.
According to David Gil what are the five basic explanations for the nature of Abuse
1) Stuctural Factors- social class could play a role
2) Mental illness of parents
3) The cycle, history of abuse as a child
4) Transcendtory factors- drugs, alcohol
5) Demanding Child- Parents do not know how ato handle
What is the relationship of Child Abuse and Neglect to Delinquency and Status Offenses
Runaways- get away from abuse
Disruptive behaviors is school
What role do Police Officers play in Child Abuse
Who are the only ones allowed to remove a child from an abusive home.
What roles does the Social Worker play in the Justice System regarding Child Abuse?
gather evidence and accompany the Police Officer
Describe the standard of proof regarding child abuse
must be clear evidence of abuse and parents do have a right to raise their children
What did Cesare Lombroso say about female delinquency?
Women are inferior to men
Women are unable to feel pain (insensitive to the pain of others and lack moral refinement)
How does Lombroso say women are characterized due to sex roles
Women are characterized as passive conservative just like the egg they carry
Women are born with feminine characteristics which make them dull
The Female delinquent is born with more manly characteristics, this combined with female characteristics makes female criminals more vicious than men
What did Cowie say about girls who are physically overdeveloped in regards to crime?
Maybe physical overdevelopment leads to earlier attention to sex
Women in prison tend to be overweight
Menstration is a constant reminder than they will never be men and leds to frustration crime
What did WI Thomas say about about characteristic regarding men and women, "In Sex and Society"
Men have a Katabolic force- more active aggressive
Women have an Anabolic force- motionless, nathargic, conservative.
What did the book "The Unadjusted Girl" by WI Thomas highlight?
Female Delinquency is connected to desire for new experiences, security, recognition and response, sex can be used by females as a form of human capital
Sigmond Freud blames what on female delinquency?
Women have penis envy and want to be a male
They adapt by having a baby however, the female that does not adapt and overcome the envy become delinquent
What does Peter Bols say about the sexual acting out of women criminals?
may be trying to avoid homosexual surrender, or revenge against the mother
May be trying to restore reality for an emotionaly alienated female, attach themselves to others
How does Otto Pollack say that girls get away with delinquency?
Society is more leniant on females, and they act in roles we do not link with crime. I.E. Nurse, Housekeeper
What does Otto Pollack say about the character of women?
Women are inherintly deceitful and instigators
What are some sociological explanations offered for delinquency
Blocked Opportunity Theory- opportunities to achieve goals are blocked, therefore leads to delinquencies as an alternative. This is more general for men- the breadwinners
What does Susan Datesman say about the Blocked Opportunity Theory?
She suggests that women are more likely to react to such blocked opportunites
What does Freda Adler say about the Women's Liberation Movement?
Rise in crime for females due to the lack of opportunities.
Women have the same goals but less opportunity.
Some women may pick up traditionally male delinquent acts shifting from promiscuity to more violent and drug acts.
According to the Social Control Theory, why are women less likely to be delinquent?
Sexual orientation- the way we raise girls, they are more supervised
What does Giordano suggests about peer groups and female delinquency?
Most likely to commit a delinquent act in a mixed sex environment
2nd most likely when they are alone
3rd most likely when they are with a group of females
4th pair of females
5th 1 girl and a group of males
Lastly, 1 boy and 1 girl (relationship status)
Whart does Ploeger, Warr and Mears say matters to girls in regards to delinquency
moral evaluations. They care what peers think.
Describe the Power Control Theory
John Hagen claims that mothers gained power relative to the husband as they began to Work.
What is the Patriarchial family
What is the egalitarian family
Treat girls equal to boys- giving girls more freedom thus reducing crime
What does Silbert and Pines say regarding the Feminist Theory?
60% of street prostitues had been sexual abused
Why are girls treated differently in the Justice Systems?
They are percieved to be engaged in a sexual type of activity therefore discrimenated
Girls expected of Status offenses more likely to be referred to court
What did Christy Visher discover regarding females in the Justice System
younger females received harsher punishment than older females for same delinquent acts as police tend to take on a paternal stance.
What did Fordham say about race and female delinquency in "Those Loud Black Girls"
Black girls resisted the anglo saxon norm of being feminine, not wanting to act like a white girl they would become loud, assertive and lead to dropping out and problems
What are the variables of family structure regarding delinquency
Single or two parent families
Small or Large families
What are the varibales is function in families in regards to delinquency
relationships of the home:
Parents with each other
Parents with the children
What does George Mangold say about the Broken Home
1924, the broken home is key to explaining delinquency
What does Wales and Rankin say about the broken home.
higher in the broken home by 10-15 percent.
Stronger for minor forms and status offenses.
Stronger for families broken by divorce over death.
Age of child at the time of breakup insignificant.
Stepparents were not a factor
How does birth order affect delinquency?
Children born in the middle more likely to be delinquent and they may feel left out.
How does family size affect delinquecy and why?
Children of large families more likely to be delinquent:
Difficult to supervise large families
Parents tend to delegate responsibilities
Larger families more at risk for social problems like poverty
What does the Glueks and Nye say about happiness in the family regarding delinquency
Happiness of marriage is key
Good marital relationships and strong family cohesiveness key to preventing delinquency
What did Rosen find about African American males in Philadelphia
Lower delinquency in boys who have a relationship with their fathers
How does Nye say discipline affects delinquency?
Strict parenting, being laxed, or being unfair all leds to delinquency
Disciplinary role of the father makes the biggest difference in explaining delinquency
What does Cathy Widom learn from her study?
1st 29% of abused/ neglected kids ended up with serious criminal records as an older adult compared to 21% of non abused kids.
2nd Maltreated children ended with more juvenile arrests, more likely to be arrested for violent crime
What did Horace Manne discover about early schools
250 kids received 328 seperate floggings in one week about 65 floggings a day
What are three key problems in schools today
lack of funding
Crime in Schools
What issues did Urban schools face?
Failed to provide an orderly, safe environment
Authoritarian/ repressive school atmosphere
Key points, School Violence in the 1970s
According to Violent Schools-Safe Schools Report of 1978:
Secondary school pupils attacked at school often leading to injury
36% of all assaults on adolescence occured at school
Items were getting stolen in value of over 10 dollars
Key Points, School Violence in 1980s
Violence became increased and teachers became victims to assault.
1980 Study of Inner City LA Teachers:
Teachers directly being threatened by students.
Locker searches revealed weapons and drugs
Number of violent crimes in and around schools remained high
National Adolecent Student Health Survey of 1988
Third of students had been threatened at school grades 8-10
Seventh had been Robbed or Assaulted
Half of the males and a Quarter of females had been in a fist fight
7 percent males claim to carry a knife to school
Key Points, School Violence in the 1990s
1993 Center for Disease Control Study:
9-12 graders would miss school due to fear of what might happen to them at school
32 percent fearful enough to carry a weapon
Violent Crimes in and around schools increased since mid 1980s
What did the 1995-96 Study of Eleven High Schools in LA reveal?
49% had seen a weapon at school
39% had experienced gang intimidation
38% had seen a shooting go to or from school
What does 2005 Data reveal about school violence?
How do gangs perpretrate school violence?
Gangs recruited new members by means of intimidation and violence
Rival gangs often brought violence to school events
Gangs assualted teachers, students, and brought weapons and drugs to school
What did Elliot and Vass discover in their 4 year study of high school students?
Those who dropped out had significantly higher delinquency rates while in schools, however once they left school delinquency behavior declined
Jorjoura described the characteristics of droppouts how?
non homogeneous and offered three reasons for dropouts:
Short term vs Long tern reasons
School vs No School reasons
The impact of personal, financial or environmental reasons
According to the first reading, what attachment mattered most?
intimacy and communication
What does the Cultural Deviance Arguement suggest?
If associated with delinquency, will likely commit delinquent acts
What are the Characteristics of a Gun Carrier?
More Males bringing guns to school
More Blacks bringing guns to school
17-18 age group bringing more guns to school
Both Single and Two Parent arrangments bringing guns to school
High Income students bringing guns to school
Gang members bringing guns to school
Schools near Central Cities experience more guns at school