Bio Sci Exam 2

  1. Phylum Chordata is distinguished by four distinct features:
    • a dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • notochord - flexible, supportive, longitudinal rod located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord
    • pharyngeal slits located in the pharynx
    • muscular post-anal tail
  2. Tunicates
    • invertebrae cordates
    • often adgere to rocks and boats
    • adult have no trace of chrordate trademarks, but larva do
  3. Lancelets
    • invertebrae cordates
    • have all four chordate features
    • bury itself in marine sand
  4. Craniates
    all chordates with a head
  5. Vertebrates distinguished by
    more extensive skull and backbone (vertebral column)
  6. Vertebral Column
    • composed of a series of bone called vertebrae
    • enclose the one of the main parts of the nervous system the nerve cord
  7. Tetrapods
    • jawed vertebrates with 2 pairs of limbs
    • first vertebrates on land
  8. Amniotes
    • tetrapods with terrestrially adapted egg
    • completed the transition to land
  9. List the hierarchy of clades to which mammals belong:
    • Chordates
    • Craniates
    • Vertebrates
    • Jawed Vertebrates
    • Tetrapods
    • Amniotes
  10. Hagfish
    • are not considered vertebrates because they only have a notochord
    • considered a craniates
  11. Chrondrichthyans
    • sharks and rays
    • have a flexible skeleton made of cartilage
    • have a lateral line system
  12. Lateral Line System
    a row of sensory organs running along each side that are sensitive to changes in water pressure and can detect minor vibrations caused by animals swimming nearby
  13. Ray-Finned Fishes
    • have a skeleton made of bone
    • fins are supported by thin, flexible skeletal rays
    • most have flattened scales that cover their skin
    • operculum that covers a chamber housing the gills
    • have a gas filled sac - swim bladder
  14. Lobe Finned Fishes
    have a series of rod-shaped bones in their muscular pectoral and pelvic fins
  15. Amphibians
    • include salamanders, frogs, and caecilians
    • "living a double life"
    • first tetrapods to live on land
    • they can live their life on land, but need to lay their eggs in the water
  16. Where are most amphibians found?
    • Damp habitats
    • moist skin supplements for gas exchange and many have poison glands for defense
  17. Amniotes
    • Reptiles, birds, and mammals
    • major derived character is the amniotic egg, where the embryo develops within a protective, fluid-filled sac (amnion)
    • enabled these animals to complete life cycles on land
  18. Reptiles
    • includes lizards, snakes, turtles, and crocodilians, birds (kinda)
    • cold-blooded or ectothermic
    • adaptations include scales, water-proofed with keratin
  19. Endothermic
    using heat generated by metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature
  20. Birds
    Evolved from a bipedal reptile with feathers
  21. Feathers
    • insulate, allowing enhanced control of body temperature, activity, and endurance
    • extensions of feathers on forelimbs and tails led to flight
  22. Birds play an important role in vast numbers across the hemisphere:
    • Essential Services: consumers of insects, pollinators of flowers, and dispersion of seeds
    • Barometers of ecosystem health - pristine and altered habitats
  23. Basic Characters of Birds
    • 2-legged (bipedal) vertebrates with backbones
    • feathers - soft, filamentous, flexible, lightweight (unlike scales) - need regular replacement and are essential for temperature regulation and flight
    • high body temps.
    • light weight and strong generating lift and thrust for flight
  24. Bird Bills
    • varies in form and function
    • toothless
    • horny sheath
    • no exact parallel among other vertebrates
  25. Birds flying:
    • structured entirely for flight
    • bones lightweight
    • spongy
    • strutted
    • hollow
  26. Physiology of Birds
    • Eggs:
    • richly provisioned external eggs
    • no species bear live young
    • Brains:
    • large, well-developed - 6 to 11 times larger than comparable reptiles
    • highly developed neural system (communication and navigation)
  27. Characteristics of Bird Legs
    • Have feet that grip tightly
    • tendons automatically flex when the bird squats
    • locking toes around the branch
  28. Current Classification
    • 30 orders
    • 193 families
    • 2099 genera
    • ~ 9700 species
  29. Adaptive Radiation
    the evolution of additional varied species adapted to different ecologies and behaviors
  30. Diversity of Birds
    • Due to adaptive radiation
    • Bill size and shape changes in relation to types of food eaten
    • Leg length chang in relation to perching and terrestrial locomotion
    • Wing shapes change in relation to patterns of flight
  31. Differences in feet and legs
    correspond to different life styles
  32. Bird Diversity in Other Aspects
    • Season and social behavior
    • reproductive rate, life span, and age of maturity
    • egg size in relation to body size, agility of new chicks, degree of parental care
  33. When does avian history begin?
    • More than 150 millon years ago
    • transformation of reptilian ancestor into feathered birds (with limited flying abilities)
  34. Extinctions
    • Major extinctions have punctuated Earth's history: Class Aves
    • starting in late Cretaceous
    • at beginning of Pleistoncene (25% loss of existing birds)
  35. Birds as Reptiles
    • Birds evolved from reptiles and have a lot in common:
    • lower jaw composed of several bones
    • lower jaw articulates on quadrate bone
    • single occipital condyle
    • single middle-ear bone
    • expanded lateral braincase
    • sclerotic ring supports eye
    • similar leg structure
    • scales
    • females are heterogametic sex
    • nucleated red blood cells
  36. Archaeopteryx
    • the original link
    • first solid evidence
    • Late Jurassic (155-135 mya)
    • central Europe
  37. Mammals
    • endothermic amniotes with hair which insulates the body and mammary glands, which produce milk
    • have a relative large brain size compared to other vertebrates and longer parental care
  38. Three main groups of Mammals:
    • Monotremes
    • Marsupials
    • Eutherians (placental mammals)
  39. During the Cretaceous Extinction:
    mammals underwent adaptive radiation giving rise to terrestrial carnivores and herbivores, bats, aquatic whales and porpoises
  40. Mammal Charcteristics
    • endothermic
    • hair
    • mammary glands
    • differentiation of teeth
  41. Monotremes
    • oldest linage (most primitive)
    • egg-laying mammals
  42. Embryos of Marsupials and Eutherians
    are nutured by a placenta within the uterus, which allows nutrients from the mother's blood to diffuse into the embryo's blood
  43. Marsupials
    • brief gestation
    • give birth to tiny, embryonic offspring
    • offspring complete development attached to the mother's nipples in a pouch or marsupium
    • most in Australia and New Zealand
  44. One Marsupial in North America
    Virginia Opposum
  45. Eutherians bear:
    • live young
    • commonly called placental mammals b/c their placentas are more complex than marsupials
    • young complete development within the mother
  46. Primates
    • includes: lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and apes
    • most are still arboreal
  47. Primate Adaptations
    • Shoulder and hip joints allow climbing and branchiation
    • Grasping hands and feet are high mobile and flexible
    • Sensitve hands and feet aid in manipulation
    • Short snout and forward-pointing eyes enhance depth perception
  48. Primates divided into three groups:
    • Anthropoids
    • Monkeys
    • Hominoids (Apes)
  49. Hominoids
    • include - gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans
    • nonhuman apes have smaller geographic range
    • lack tails and relatively large brain siz and flexible behavior
    • Chimps are omnivores
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Bio Sci Exam 2
Information that I need to know for Bio Sci Exam #2