Anatomy Exam 2

  1. Rickets
    muscles get soft and bow under weight
  2. Osteoporosis
    soft bone becomes less dense
  3. arthrology
    study of joints
  4. kinesiology
    study of movement
  5. bony joint
    2 or more bones ossified into a single bone
  6. fibrous joint
    • fibrous CT
    • ex) sutures
  7. Gomphoses
    connect teeth to their sockets
  8. Syndesmosis
    large sheets of fibrous CT - interosseous membranes
  9. synchondroses
    hyaline cartilage joins the bone
  10. Symphyses
    fibro cartilages - intervertebral disc/ pubis symphesis
  11. osteoarthritis
    wear and tear on bones
  12. rheumatoid arthritis
    • autoimmune disease
    • inflammation of the synovial membrane
  13. Cytology
    study of cells
  14. simple squamous epithelia
    • single layer - flat
    • small intestine
    • air sacs in lungs
    • function: rapid diffusion
  15. simple cuboidal E.P.
    • single layer
    • secretion/absorption in gland
    • liver, thyroid, kidney tubules
  16. Simple columnar E.P.
    • absorption aided by brush border of microvilli
    • sm intestine - all attached at basement membrane
  17. Pseudostratified columnar E.P.
    • goblet cells - respiratory system
    • trachea, bronchi
  18. stratified squamous E.P. (keratinized)
    • functions: protection
    • epidermis thick skin - dead cells
  19. stratified squamous E.P. (non keratinized)
    • Function: protection but not as thick
    • exposed to outside enviornment
    • tongue, mouth, vagina
  20. Stratified cuboidal E.P.
    • two more layers of cells
    • sweat glands
  21. Transitional E.P
    • distensible
    • bladder
    • external layer of umbilical cord
  22. Epidermis
    • out layer of skin
    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  23. Stem cells:
    • produce keratinocytes
    • found in stratum basale of epidermis
  24. keratinocytes
    synthesize keratin
  25. melanocytes
    • synthesize melanin
    • found in stratum basale of epidermis
  26. Tactile cells
    receptors for touch
  27. dendritic cells
    • macrophages that originate in the bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis of the oral cavity, esophagus and vagina
    • found in stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum of epidermis
  28. stratum basale
    • deepest layer of epidermis
    • single layer cuboidal, columnar stem cells, keratinocytes
  29. stratum spinosum
    • several layers of keratinocytes
    • thickest stratum
  30. stratum granulosum
    • 3-5 layers of flat keratinocytes, some dentritic cells
    • thick skin
  31. stratum lucidum
    • thin translucent zone
    • eleidin - clear protein
  32. stratum corneum
    • 30 layers of dead keratinized cells
    • surface layer of epidermis
  33. Apoptosis
    process of cell death
  34. dermal papillae
    upward waves, fingerlike extensions of the dermis that connect to the epidermal ridges protruding downward
  35. papillary layer
    • top layer of dermal
    • areolar tissue in and near the dermal papillae
    • loosely organized fibrous CT
  36. reticular layer
    • deeper layer of the dermis
    • thicker layer
    • dense irregular CT
  37. 5 types of cutaneous glands:
    • apocrine sweat glands
    • merocrine sweat glands
    • sebaceous glands
    • ceruminous glands
    • mammary glands
  38. apocrine sweat glands
    • groin, anal region, axilla, areola, beard area
    • scent glands --> stress and sexual stimulation
    • sex pheromones
  39. merocrine sweat glands
    • palms, soles, forehead
    • myoepithelial cells
    • stratified cuboidal epithelium - dermis
    • keratinocytes - epidermis
  40. sebaceous glands
    produce sebum - vernix caseosa
  41. ceruminous glands
    • ear canal
    • secrete ear wax
  42. medulla
    • core of loosely arranged cells and air spaces
    • center of hair
  43. cortex
    bulk of hair
  44. cuticle
    • outside layer
    • multiple very thin layers that overlap
  45. Pigments in skin color:
    • melanin
    • hemoglobin
    • carotene
    • bilirubin
  46. Basal cell carcinoma
    • stratum basale
    • small shiny bumps
  47. squamous cell carcinoma
    • stratum spinosum
    • scaley, red
  48. Maligment melanoma
    • most deadly
    • melanocyts
    • often existing mole
    • requires surgery, radiation
  49. skeletal muscle histology
    • striated
    • multinucleated
    • cells are long muscle fibers
    • voluntary control
    • nucleus pushed to the side
  50. cardiac muscle histology
    • striated
    • one or a few nuclei
    • centrally lovated nuclei
    • involuntary control
  51. sooth muscle histology
    • non striated
    • fusiform shape -- tapered ends
    • single nucleus
    • involuntary movement
  52. Paristalsis
    type of movement in smooth muscle
  53. Muscle fibers:
    • muscle cells
    • surrounded by endomysium
  54. muscle fascicle
    • bundle of muscle fibers
    • surrounded by perimysium
  55. whole muscles:
    surrounded by epimysium --> then fascia
  56. Aponeuroses
    • broad sheet of tendon
    • ex) palmar aponeurosis
  57. Pennete muscles:
    feather shaped
  58. Sternocleidomastoid m.:
    • O: manubrium of sternum, medial 1/3 of clavicle
    • I: mastoid process and lateral half of superior nuchal line
  59. Skeletal muscles are innervated by nerve cells called:
    somatic motor neurons
  60. The prime mover (agonist):
    • produces most of the force during joint action
    • ex) brachialis m. in elbow flexion
  61. synergist
    • muscle that aids the prime mover
    • ex) biceps brachii overlies the brachialis in elbow flexion
  62. antagonist
    • muscle that opposes the prime mover
    • brachialis acts as an antagonist to slow the extension of elbow
  63. fixator
    • muscle that prevents a bone from moving
    • rhombois hold the scapula in place
  64. Effort arm:
    fulcrum to the point of effort
  65. Resistance Arm:
    fulcrum to the point of resistance
  66. 1st class lever
    fulcrum in the middle
  67. 2nd class lever
    resistance in the middle
  68. 3rd class lever
    effort is applied b/w fulcrum and resistance
  69. Frontalis m.
    • O: galea aponeurotica
    • I: subcutaneous tissue of the eyebrows and orbicularis oculi muscle
    • A: elevate eyebrows, wrinkle forehead
  70. Occipitalism
    • O: Occipital bone (superior nuchel line) and some temporal bone
    • I: Galea apon
    • A: Retracts scalp; synergist
  71. Orbicularis oculi m.
    • O: medial orbit - frontal bone and maxillae, lacrimal bone
    • I: laterally on upper and lower eyelids, around perimeter
    • A: closes eyelids, squinting, compresses the lacrimal gland - move tears across eye
  72. Levator palpebrae superioris
    • O: sphenoid bone
    • I: upper eyelid
    • A: elevate the upper eyelid, open eyes
  73. buccinator m. (cheek)
    • O: tooth sockets of maxillae and mandible
    • I: blend with muscles at the angle of the mouth
    • A: cheek compression (blow up a balloon), direct food over molars
  74. Orbivularis oris
    • O: modiolus of the mouth
    • I: lips, fibers blend with fibers on other side
    • A: closing lips, protruding lips (kiss/speech)
  75. Masseter m.
    • O: zigomatic arch
    • I: ramus and angle of the mandible
    • A: elevate and close the jaw/mandible (eating)
  76. Temporalis m.
    • O: temporal bone
    • I: coronoid process of the mandible
    • A: elevates the mandible, lateral/medial excursions, retraction/protruding of jaw (eating/chewing)
  77. Platysma m.
    • superficial muscle
    • O: fascia of deltoid and pectoralis major (upper thorax)
    • I: mandible, skin, subcutaneous tissue of lower face
    • A: "horror" expression, draws lower lip and angle of mouth down
  78. Hyoid muscle group
    • suprahyoid group
    • infrahyoid group
    • O: hyoid bone (superior/inferior)
    • I: lower mouth, tongue, larynx, mandible
    • A: swallowing, chewing, opening mouth wide, vocalizing -- synergist
  79. Intrinsic muscles
    muscles within a group (O and I the same)
  80. extrensic muscles
    crosses regions (O and I different)
  81. Trapezius m.
    • superficial m.
    • O: occipital bone (superior nuchal line), nuchal ligament, C7 to T12 (spinous process)
    • I: acromion and spine of scapula, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
    • A: may very
    • -upper fibers: elevate scapula
    • -middle fibers: adducts scapulae (bring together)
    • -lower fibers: depression of scapula
  82. Latissimus dorsi m.
    • really large
    • O: T6-T12 spinous process, lumbar and sacral vertebrae via the thoracolumbar fascia
    • I: intertubercular groove of humerus
    • A: medial rotation, adduction, backward arm swing (rower/bowling)
  83. Pectoralis major
    • O: sternum, costal cartilage, medial clavicle
    • I: humerus (lateral ridge of intertubercular groove)
    • A: arm adduction, medial rotation
  84. deltoid m.
    • O: clavicle (lateral), acromion and spine of scapula
    • I: humerus (deltoid tuberosity)
    • A: abduction of the arms (pushing them out), anterior/posterior fibers can direct the swing of the arm
  85. rotator cuff m.
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • subscapularis
    • O: fossae of scapula
    • I: greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
    • A: adduction, absuction, rotation, shoulder stabilization
  86. Brachialis m.
    • O: anterior surface of distal half of humerus
    • I: coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
    • A: elbow flexion
  87. Biceps brachii m.
    • O: long head - superior margin of glenoid cavity; short head - caracoid process
    • I: tuberosity of radius, fascia of forearm
    • A: supination of forearm, synergist in elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder stabilization
  88. triceps brachii m.
    • O: long head - inferior margin of glenoid cavity and joint capsule; lateral head - posterior surface of proximal end of humerus; medial head - posterior surface of entire humeral shaft
    • I: olecranon, fascia of forearm
    • A: extends elbow, extends/adducts humerus
  89. Extensor Digitorum m.
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: dorsal surface of phalanges II - IV via palpate tendons
    • A: extension of phalanges
  90. thenar muscle group
    • palmer anterior surface
    • A: adduction/abduction of the thumb
  91. Gluteus maximus
    • O: posterior lateral ilium, lower sacrum, coccyx
    • I: distal, posterior femur and proximal tibia via the iliotibial band
    • A: thigh abduction, elevation from a squat, extending the thigh a the hip (climbing stairs)
  92. Iliotibial band
    • extra thick band of CT on lateral thigh (fascia lata)
    • runs from iliac crest to the lateral tibial condyle
  93. Gluteus medius and Gluteus minimus
    • O: outer lateral surface of ilium, from crest ot acetabulum
    • I: greater trochanter of femur
    • A: thigh abduction, medial rotation, shifting balane to weight bearing leg as we walk
  94. Sartorius m.
    • O: anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: proximal medial tibia
    • A: lateral rotaiton of the thigh and abduction (cross your legs)
  95. Gracilis m.
    • O: pubic arch (medial)
    • I: proximal medial tibia (medial to sartorius)
    • A: thigh adduction, knee flexion (horse riding)
  96. Quadriceps femoris
    • Rectus Femoris (O- Ilium - superior margin acetabulum)
    • Vastus lateralis (O- femur - proximal shaft)
    • Vastus intermedius (O- femur)
    • Vastus medialus (O- femur)
    • I: tibial tuberosity via quadriceps femoris tendon
    • A: leg extension and thigh flexion
  97. Hamstring group:
    • biceps femoris (short and long head)
    • semi tendinosus
    • semimembranosis
    • O: ischial tuberosity
    • I: proximal tibia and fibula
    • A: hip extension, knee flexion, rotation of the thigh
  98. Tibialus anterior
    • O: lateral condyle of femur, lateral proximal shaft of the tibia, interosseus membrane b/w tibia and fibula
    • I: metatarsal I, medial cuneform tarsal bone in distal row
    • A: Dorsiflexion
  99. Gastrochemius
    • medial and lateral head
    • O: condyles and popliteal surface of femur
    • I: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • A: plantar flexion of foot
  100. Soleus
    • deep to gastrochemius
    • O: posterior head and proximal femur, middle 1/3 of tibia, interosseus membrane
    • I: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • A: plantar flexion of foot
  101. External abdominal obliques
    • O: ribs 5-12 and CC
    • I: linea alba, iliac crest, pubic tubercle (via rectus sheath
    • A: support, protection, posture, stability, forceful exhalation, compression, rotation at the waist
  102. internal abdominal obliques
    • O: inguinal ligament, ilium
    • I: linea alba via rectus sheath
    • A: support, protection, posture, stability, forceful exhalation, compression, rotation at the waist
  103. Transverse abdominal m.
    • deepest
    • I: linea alba (posterior) via rectus sheath
    • A: support, protection, posture, stability, forceful exhalation, compression, rotation at the waist
  104. Rectus abdominis
    • 6 pack
    • O: pubis - crest of ilium, symphysis
    • I: xiphoid process, cc5-7
    • A: trunk flexion and compression
  105. Levator ani
    • 3 small muscles
    • O: pubis and ischium
    • I: coccyx
    • A: support and forms the pelvic floor
  106. Inguinal hernia
    loop of sm intestine bulges out of canal
  107. diastasis recti
    seperation that can occur along the linea alba
  108. lumen
    open space in tube
  109. mucosa
    inner most tissue layer
Card Set
Anatomy Exam 2
muscles, skin, digestive system