Obstrucyive Lung Diseases

  1. Cystic Fibrosis
    • Genetic Disorder
    • S&S: chronic cough, failure to gain weight, grequendt reps infection, fatigue, decreased endurance, decreased exercise tolerance
    • Diagnosis Sweat test, xray, blood gasses
    • Treatment: Monitor hydration, diet
    • Chest PT percussion and posteral drainage
    • Bronchodilator meds, Prophylactic antibiotics
    • Humidification
    • Exercise
  2. Lung Cancer
    • Patho: Common site of 1st or 2nd CA. Metastasis from other locations presence of tume obrtructs airflow-inflammation, response & frequenct infections
    • Etiology: cigarette smoking, exposure to pollutants
    • Local S&S: persistent cough dyspnea, wheezing hoarseness, facial and arm edema, HA, dysphagin
    • Systemic S&S: decreased weight, anemia, Fatigue
  3. Apiration
    • passage of food or fluid, vomit, drugs or other foreing matierial into the trachea and lungs
    • S&S: coughing choking marked dyspnea
    • stridor or hoarseness wheezing tachycardia, tachpnea, nasal flaring, chest retractions, makred hypoxia large obstruction can lead to respirtatory or cardia arrest
  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Repeated and momentary cessation of breathing during sleep
    • more frequent in men incidence increases with age and obesity
    • Can lead to chronic hypoxia with many complication including daytime sleepiness
    • Treatment: CPAP machine delivers humidified air at a pressure that maintains an open airway
  5. Asthma What is it, Etiology, and Precipitating factors
    • A disease tat involves periodic episodes of severe but reverible bronchial obstruction in pt with hyperresponisve airways
    • Etiology: genetic tendecny allergic type response
    • Precipitating Factors: exertion stress strong emation smoke dust smells
  6. Asthma Partial Obstruction and Total Obstruction
    • Partial Obstruction: leads to air trapping hyper-inflation, mucous, coughing
    • Total obstruction: Lead to atelectasis, non aeration distal to the obstruction
  7. Define Status Asthmaticus
    Severs and non-responsive can be fatal
  8. Asthma S&S
    • S&S: cought, syspnea, tightness in chest agitation thcik mucus, wheezing use of accossory muscles tachycarid
    • Treatment: avoid trigger
  9. Define Atelectasis
    Collapsed or airless condition of the lung
  10. Define Aspiration
    Passage of food or fuild ect into trachea or lungs depending on size location can directly obstruct airflow of set up inflammatory response or bronchospasm
  11. Emphysema Patho and Etiology
    • Destruction of alveolar walls - large permanently inflated lungs.
    • Release of destructive enzymes air trapping
    • genetic tendency smoking
  12. Emphysema S&S and Medical management
    • S&S: dyspnea first with exertion later at rest. barrel chest
    • Increased redidual volume prolonged expiratory phase use os accessory muscles
    • Fear & anxiety easily fatigues
    • Medical Management: Bronchodilators anitbiotics 02 therapy
    • Maintain nutrition hydration and ventilation
  13. Pulmonary Edema Etiology, S&S, and Treatment
    • Etiology: may result from may primary conditions such as left sided CHF, hypoproteinemai due to do kidney or liver disease, tumors blocked lymphatic drainage
    • S&S: cough orthopnea, rales
    • As condition worsens hemoptysis labored breathing cyanosis
    • Treatment: treat causative factors supportive care
    • upper body eleveated when possibel
  14. Define Atelectasis
    nonaeration collapse of lung or part of lung
  15. Define Pleural Effusion
    • excess fluid in pleural cavity effects despend on amt ype and reate accumulation
    • Dyspnea, chest pain Increased RR and HR
  16. Define Pneumothorax
    • Hole in chest wall air or gas admitted lung collapses
    • Simple/spontaneous
    • Open (sucking wound)
    • Tension (emergency)
  17. Simple/ spontaneous
    Tear in surface of lung allows air to excape from inside or lung to pleural cavity
  18. Open (suckin wound)
    injury vreates opening in chest wall, sucks air into pleural space with each inspiration caues mediastinal shift
  19. Tension
    • Creats a one way valve effect
    • opening is sealed so nthing can escape with inspiration
  20. Flail chest
    fractured ribs chest wall rigidity is lost resulting in parodoxial movement in taht area
  21. Infant Respiratory Distress syndrome
    • Lack of surfactand due to prematurity
    • S&S: respiratory difficulty at birth or shortly after less than respiratons per min nasal flaring intercostal retraction decreased body temp
    • can lead to death
  22. Adult Respiratory Distress syndrome
    • AKA: shock lung, wet lung, stiff lung. postperfusion lung and others
    • usually onet - 1-2 days after injury or precipitating event
    • often accociated with multipule organ dysfunction or failure secondary to severe insult to the body
    • Etiology: injury inflammation increased interstitail fluid damages lung tissue necrosis fibrosis
  23. Acute Respirtatory Failure
    Etiology:results from other oulmonary disorders
Card Set
Obstrucyive Lung Diseases