The Gastrointestinal System

  1. What is the GI system?
    Gastrointestinal system breaks food down mechanically and chemically
  2. Where does digestion begins?
    In the mouth where food is chewed and mixed with the substance called saliva.
  3. What does saliva do?
    Saliva moistens the food and helps in swallowing; it contains an enzyme (protein) that helps digest starches
  4. What is the function of duodenum? Where does it begins and ends?
    • The function of the duodenum is digestion. It begins in the small intestine where absorption begins and ends in
    • the pancreas, which finishes the job of breaking down food into usable parts
  5. Where is bile made and where is it stored?
    Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
  6. What is the relationship of pancreas to digestion, what does it do?
    Pancreas finishes the job of breaking the food down into usable parts
  7. What is peristalsis?
    Rhythmic contraction of the muscle wall of the small and large intestines
  8. What is the role of the villi (singular, villus)?
    Each villus is capable of absorbing the end products of digestion
  9. What happens in the large intestine?
    What is left of the food movesthrough the large intestine, where water is reabsorbed into the body
  10. What does the liver do?
    Responsible for manufacturing bile and is a storage area for glucose; the liver also is the place where toxins, or poisons, are removed from the blood
  11. What is glucose?
    A form of sugar
    • changes in the GI system causes digestion to be less efficient
    • flow of saliva decreases, as does the taste buds
    • older person may experience difficulty chewing and swallowing
    • weakened gag reflex means an increased risk of choking
    • reduced digestive juices make food more difficult to digest
    • the absorption of vitamins and minerals also reduces
    • Notify RN if tape becomes loose
    • Keep tube clean free from mucous deposit
    • Observe for pressure damage
  14. KEY IDEA
    When a nasogastric tube is used to drain substances from the sotmach or to collect a specimen, the patient is given nothing by mouth (NPO)
  15. What is gastrostomy?
    an opening made through the abdomen to the stomach for the purpose of feeding
  16. KEY IDEA
    Be sure to clean the tube site each day and to check the fit of the tube
    Gastrostomy Tube (GT, PEG, OR PEG-J) Daily Care
    • cleanse around the gastrostomy site with mild soap and water; pat dry
    • give tube a twist to ensure that the tube is not too tight against the abdominal wall
    • if the tube does not twist easily, loosen the tube retainer device so that there is 1/8-inch distance between the skin and the retainer disc or triangle
    • once the gastrostomy site has healed (usually 2-3 weeks after surgery) NO DRESSINGS are needed at the site
    • watch for any signs of irritation or leakage at the gastostomy site and report these immediately to a supervisor
    • when a patient puts tension on a G-tube, the tube should be stabilized with a mesh netting or wrap to prevent dislocation of the tube or tissue breakdown
  18. KEY IDEA
    Although nasogastric feeding is customarily started by a RN or LPN, the NA is responsible for watching the level of the feeding and making sure the formula is being fed slowly into the patient's stomach
  19. Diarrhea
    abnormally frequent discharge of fluid fecal material from the bowel

    frequent skin care (every 1 to 2 hours) to prevent the skin around the anus and buttocks from becoming sore and irritated

    protective ointments such as A&D ointment can help to prevent breakdown
  20. What is BRAT?
    a dietary remedy for diarrhea. BRAT- banana, rice, applesauce, and tea
  21. KEY IDEA
    diarrhea is always unhealthy and may result in severe illness and dehydration. alway report diarrhea immediately to your supervisor
  22. Constipation
    difficult, infrequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry fecal material

    to help patient avoid constipation it is important to be sure that the patient takes enough fluids every day
  23. KEY IDEA
    the most common cause of constipation is lack of adequate fluid intake, so it is important to see that the patient gets enough fluids each day. In addition, bulk-forming foods and physical activity help combat constipation
  24. FYI
    CNA does not do enemas, suppositories or fecal disimpaction in Hawaii
  25. What is ostomy?
    surgical procedure (operation) in which a new opening, called a stoma, is created in the abdomen, usually for the discharge of wastes (urine or feces) from the body
  26. KEY IDEA
    an ostomy is a surgical procedure that provides the patient with an artificial opening connecting a body passage with outside, such as in a tracheotomy or colostomyt. An ostomy may be temprary or permanent
  27. KEY IDEA
    it is easier to empty the ostomy pouch when it is about 1/3 filled. Hot water destroys the pouch's odor prooding
Card Set
The Gastrointestinal System
NURS 16. CH 20