1. Respiration
    • Exchange of air, used to burn food as fuel
    • Oxygen in
    • Carbon Dioxide out
  2. Inspiration
    Taking in air
  3. Exspiration
    Letting out air
  4. 4 catogories of respiration
    • Ventilation
    • External respiration
    • Transportation of oxygen
    • Internal respiration
  5. Ventilation
    • First act in breathing
    • Fills all space in lung with air
  6. External respiration
    Transfer of oxygen into blood strean through cell epithelium
  7. Transportation of oxygen
    Movement of oxygen through blood
  8. Internal respiration
    Oxygen enters the cell and used to make ATP
  9. Carbon Dioxid removal
    • Waste product
    • Only removed by oxygen intake-no O2 become lactic acid
  10. Nostral material and purpose
    • Made of cartilage
    • Makes air moist, warm, dry for body
    • Filters with mucas to trap bugs
    • Resingating chamber-amplifies sound
    • Orfaction-senc of smell
  11. Nasal hairs
    • Filter
    • Made of cilia
    • Moves air in one direction
  12. Vibrissae
    Nasal hairs
  13. Rhinitis
    Infection of nasal cavity
  14. Sinusitus
    Infection from nasal cavity infection, infects sinuses
  15. Lysosimes
    Found in nasal mucas
  16. Nasal Conchae
    • Folds in nasal cavity
    • Resingnates voice
  17. Thachea rings
    9 rings made of hyaline cartilage
  18. Epiglottis
    Elastic cartilage
  19. Thyroid catilage
    Biggest ring, fusion of parts makes adams apple
  20. Laryngeal Prominence
    • Adams apple
    • Fusion of thryoid cartilage
  21. Vocal cord
    • At juncution of trachea
    • Closes and opens to make sound, vibrations
    • Controled by brain, cerebral hemisphere
  22. Larynxs
    • Above vocal cords
    • Inflammation=Larengitis
  23. Thrachealis muscle
    • In back of trachea
    • 10-12 cen long
  24. Adventitia
    Outer most layer of rings of thrachea
  25. Psuedostratified columnar epithelium
    • Looks like two layers but only one
    • Has cilia
    • Inside layer of trachea
  26. Cilia reflex
    Cough-reflex brought on by irritation of cilia
  27. Trachea layers
    • Mucous membrane
    • Submucosa
    • Adventitia
  28. Cartilage of thachea
    Hyaline cartilage
  29. Tubes of lungs
    Bronchia-made of muscle
  30. Lungs
    Cellular structures with air pockets
  31. Carina
    Junction or branch where thachea is split
  32. Bronchia
    Formed where thachea divides
  33. Right lode of lung
    • 3 lobes
    • Superior lobe
    • Middle lobe
    • Inferior lobe
  34. Left lobe of lung
    • Has 2 lobes
    • Superior lobe
    • Inferior lobe
  35. Terminal bronchiole
    Tube made of muscle that leads to respiratory bronchioles which leads to alveoli
  36. Respiratory bronchioles
    Branch after terminal bronchiole that supports the alveolar sac
  37. Alveolar duct
    packed with aveolar sacks packed with aveoli
  38. Alveolar sac
    Packed with alveoli attached by aveolar duct to bronchiolos
  39. Alveolar pores
    Inside each alveoli
  40. Atrium
    Dark area inside each alveolar duct
  41. Alveoli sac job
    • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through blood supply
    • Sacs have alot of blood supply
  42. Elastic fibers of alveoli
    Elastic so they can move air by opening and closing
  43. Aveoli wall
    Made of scramus epitherlial cells-very thin layer that allows exchange or gases
  44. Scramus epithelial walls
    Very thin single layer so oxygen and cardon dioxide can slip through
  45. Type 1 cell
    • Angiotensin 1 converting enzyme "ACE"
    • Controls blood pressure
  46. Type 2 cell
    • Surfactant
    • Reduces the surface tension of water
    • Breaks hydrogen bonds in water to break up mucus so you can breath
  47. Systic phybrosis
    Thick mucus-no surfactant
  48. External respiration
    Movement of oxygen from lung cell to blood
  49. Internal respiration
    Movement of carbon dioxide from blood to lung cell
  50. Marcophage
    Immune cells-2 million come out of lungs that go into saliva and recyceled
  51. Pleurisy
    Inflammation of parietal fluid in lung area-spreads to lung you get phnemonia
  52. Visceral pleura
    Surrounds lung
  53. Branches of thachea
    Branches in 23 places
  54. Inspiration
    Taking in air
  55. Experation
    Letting air out
  56. Intrapleural pressure
    756 mm Hg=4 below ATM
  57. Intrapulmonary pressure
    • 760mm Hg inside lung
    • Shifts up and down only 1mm
  58. Atelectosis
    Colapsed lung-no pressure in pleural cavity
  59. Numothorax
    Air gets in pleural cavity and accumulates in lung
  60. Diaphragm movement
    • External intercostals-muscles
    • Moves up (inferiorly) when breathing in
    • Moves down (superiorly) when letting out
  61. Air flow and bronchial tube relation
    • As tubes get smaller so does the amout of air flow
    • Less volume more resistance
  62. IRDS
    • Infant Respitory Disfunction Syndrom
    • Sarfactant levels are low-lungs not fully formed-think mucus in lungs not broken up
  63. Sarfactant
    Breaks down hydrogen bonds so water can pass through and break down mucus
  64. Compliance
    Lungs are elastic and recoil-highly elastic better breathing
  65. Osifacation of sternum
    • Made of cartilage
    • Becomes hard and thorax cant expand to breath
  66. Tidal volume
    500ml of normal air in or out
  67. Inspiratory reserve volume
    • 3100ml
    • Deep breath-reserve volume
  68. Expiratory reserve volume
    • 1200ml
    • Letting out a deep breath, pushing it all out
  69. Residual volume
    • 1200ml
    • Remamains in lung
    • Residual is always left in lung
  70. Vital capacity
    • 4800ml
    • Total of inspiratory, tidal, expiratory volumes
    • Not residual
  71. Total lung capacity
    • 6000ml
    • All inspiratory, tidal, expiratory,residual volumes added up
  72. Deap space
    150ml of sir trapped in lung-even when dead
  73. Minute ventilation
    Total amount of air that goes in and out
  74. Breathing rate
    • 12 breaths per min
    • 6 liters per min
  75. Daltons Law
    • Law of partial pressure
    • Each element has its own pressure exserted
    • Total pressure of system is the sum of each elements pressure exserted
  76. Henery's Law
    • Solubility of gas in liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure
    • The higher the partial pressure the more soluble it is
  77. Oxygen toxcity
    When O2 becomes "-" or a free racdical it becomes highly toxic to cell
  78. Scuba diving problems
    • Nitrogen builds up in blood
    • Caused by no decompression
  79. Bentz
    Nitrogen bubbles in blood that dont dissolve and collect in joints
  80. Carbon Monoxide posioning
    Hyperbaract chamber-oxygen forced into body to absorbe more to covert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide which is less deadly
  81. Ventilation perfusion
    Air comes in and then goes into blood
  82. Vasciolation relation to air intake
    • Vasciolation goes up air intake goes up
    • Vasciolation goes down air intake goes down
  83. Oxygen bound protein
    Hemoglobin-protein in blood
  84. Oxyhemoglobin
    When hemoglobin is carring oxygen
  85. Deoxyhemoglobin
    When hemoglobin is not carring oxygen
  86. Hypoxia
    Low oxygen in blood
  87. Cyanosis
    Blue color no oxygen in blood
  88. Hypoxia exmaples 4
    • Anemia Hypoxia
    • Ischemiac Hypoxia
    • Histotoxic Hypoxia
    • Hypoxemic Hypoxia
  89. Anemic Hypoxia
    Low RBC count-less oxygen being brought to cells
  90. Ischemic Hypoxia
    Any kind of Blockage that blocks the follow of oxygen rich blood
  91. Histotoxic Hypoxia
    Poisoning of tissue
  92. Hypoxemia Hypoxia
    Low oxygen partial pressure
  93. Carbon Dioxide removal
    • Most goes to RBC
    • Some goes to plasma
  94. RBC and carbon dioxide
    • Enters RBC become and acid then Bicarbonate ion and leaves RBC as
    • HCO3-
  95. Chloride shift
    HCO3- levels make plasma a - charge so CL- is sent back to RBC to counter act - charge
  96. Globin chain
    Starts exchage of O2 & CO2
  97. Haldene Effect
    When more carbin dioxide is carried in blood
  98. Oxygen transfer to blood
    • Most goes into RBC
    • Alittle is dissolved in plasma
  99. Bohr Effect
    • Weakening of hemoglobin and oxygen bond
    • Breaks them apart so oxygen can be used by cell
  100. Carbomino Hemoglobin
    When hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide
  101. Breathing controled by
    Cerebelum of brain-Pons region
  102. Intercostal nerves
    Makes chest box go up and down
  103. Phrenic Nerves
    Control the diaphram up and down
  104. Hering Breur Reflex
    Inflation Reflex-reflex to breath cant stop it
  105. Eupnea
    Normal breathing
  106. Apnea
    Stop breathing
  107. Hyperapnea
    Deep breath
  108. Hypocapnea
    Low carbon dioxide-breath in bag
  109. Hypercapnea
    High carbon dioxide-hyperventilate
  110. Asthma
    Inflamatory responce to alergie
  111. Bronchitis
    Physicaly block bronchi
  112. COPD
    Cronic obstructed pulminary distress
  113. Dyspena
    Difficultly breathing
  114. Obstructive emphasemia
    • Alveoli start colapsing
    • Barrel chest
  115. Lung cancer
    90% smoking
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