Name the pathogen that causes Streptococcus Pharyngitis.
Strep throat is caused by GAS, what are the factors that make it so virulent?
resistance to phagocytosis
What is the test that is used to detect S. pyogenes in the throat?
EIA; Enzyme immunoassay
What is the Rx for Pharyngitis?
What are the symptoms of Strep throat/ Streptococcal Pharyngitis?
Frequently; swollen lymph nodes, tonsillitis, otitis media
How is pharyngitis transmitted?
Scarlet Fever is caused by what pathogen?
Streptococcus pyogenes that has been invaded by a bacteriophage.
What is the toxin that produces the rash during a Scarlet Fever infection?
Scarlet fever is associated with what disease?
What is the Rx for Scarlet Fever?
What are the symptoms of Scarlet Fever?
pinkish red skin rash
spotted strawberry appearance of the tongue until it loses its upper membrane, then it becomes very red and enlarged
What are the symptoms of Diphtheria?
Sore throat and fever
followed by general malaise and swelling of the neck.
Tough greyish membrane in thoat
a membrane containing fibrin dead tissue, and bacterial cells is caused by what upper respiratory disease?
What is the pathogen invoved in Diphtheria
How is diphtheria is trasmitted?
Airbore due to its resistance to drying
A diphtheria membrane is dangerous because?
It can block the air passages
Diphtheria is more virulent when?
It has been lysogenized by a phage
What are the results of untreated/ineffective Rx from a lysogenized Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterial infection?
the toxin circulates in the bloodstream, interferes with protein synthesis. The heart and kidneys are effected. Nerves can also be involved producing partial paryalysis
Vaccination for diphtheria is:
What does the "D" in DTaP vaccine stand for?
Describe/catagorize Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A gram-postive, non-endospor-forming rod
pleomorphic, club shaped
When an adult is penetrated deeply by a
dirty nail. What type of toxoid will be administered along with
Diphtheria toxoid (Td vaccine)
Slow healing ulcerations of the skin,
with a gray membrane are found on a transient male. What disease
might this be?
What is the Rx for diphtheria?
antibiotics in conjunction with antitoxins.
What is Otitus Media?
Otitus media is a complication of what?
The common cold, or any infection of the nose, throat
What are the common pathogens that
cause Otitus Media and what are their respective %'s
Streptococcus pneumoniae 35%
Hemolytic influenzae 20-30%
Moraxella catarrhalis 10-15%
Streptococcus pyogenes 8-10%
Staphlococcus aureus 1-2%
Name the most common causative agents of the common cold and their %'s
What are the symptoms to a uncomplicated coronavirus infection of the upper respiratory system?
sneezing, excessive nasal secretion, congestion
What is the causative agent of Whooping Cough?
Describe and catagorize the bacterium Bortdetella pertussis.
virulent strains possess a capsule
Name the specific location in which Bordetella pertussis inhabits within an infected individual.
B. pertussis attches to the ciliated cells in the trachea
What is the name of the chemical that Bordetella pertussis produces which prevents the ciliary escalator from working?
What is the name of the chemical which Bordetella pertussis produces that enters the bloodstream and is responsible for the systemic symptoms of the disease?
What is the name of the 1st stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms associated with this stage?
The catarrhal stage, resembles a common cold.
What is the name of the 2nd stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms?
The paroxysmal stage is characterized by prolonged sieges of coughing to eject unremoved mucus. Gasping between coughs causes the "whooping" sound. Coughing episodes occur for 1 to 6 weeks.
What is the 3rd stage of pertussis and what are the symptoms?
The convolescence stage may last for months. in infants irreversable damage may occur to the brain.
What is the name of the vaccination for Pertussis?
DTaP: Diphtheria Tetanus acellular Pertussis
What is the Rx for pertussis?
During the catarrhal stage antibiotics: erythromycin or macrolides. Afterward the antibiotics are unhelpful but may reduce tranmission.
What is the causitive agent of Tuberculosis?
Describe the morphology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
M. tuberculosis is a:
sometimes forms elements
tends to grow in clumps
appears mold like when growing on water
Catagorize M. tuberculosis
list the cell wall characterisics of M. tuberculosis:
carbol-fusion dye cannot be decolorized with acid-alcohol (acid-fast)
large amounts of lipids
highly resistant to desiccation
very resistant to chemical antimicrobials
contains mycolic acids
M. tuberculosis is transmitted how?
What factors my affect host resistance levels to M. tuberculosis?
presence of another illness
infecting dosage size
Why is mycolic acids an important factor in M. tuberculosis pathenogenicity?
Mycolic acids are part of the cell wall and strongly stimulates the inflammatory response in an infected individual
What symptoms are present after an initial infection of Tubercle bacilli and are subsequently phagosized by macrophages?
A tubercle begins when?
phagosized tubercle bacilli are growing in the macrophage
What is an early tubercle composed of?
a clump tubercle bacilli multiplying in macrophages that are surrounded by a layer of defensive cells, more macrophages
Symptoms of TB 1st begin to occur when?
In a few weeks after tubercles have formed
What causes 1st syptoms of TB?
uncalcified lesions in the alveoli
dying macrophages releasing tubercle bacilli at the caseous center of a tubercle
What is the process called in which the caseous center of a tubercle enlarges and forms an air-filled cavity in which tubercle bacilli can grow
What causes tubercle bacilli to be disseminated throughout the host via circualtory and lymphatic systems?
prolonged liquifaction inside a tubercle causes the tubercle to rupture sending the growing bacilli throughout the host
If Tb is arrested before any tubercles rupture what visible evidence can be found?
What is currently the best way to detect Ghon's complexes?
Computed Tomography CT scans
What are the calcified lesions due to TB called?
What are the two most powerful anti-tb drugs?
Isoniazid and rifampin/rifampicin
How long is the minimum recommented TB treatment time with antibiotics?
What are the symptoms of TB?
sputum may become bloodstained
general loss of vigor
blood vessels rupture causing fatal hemoraging
Disseminated infection by tubercle bacilli is called what?
Numerous millet sized tubercles found in different body tissues is due to what?
What is the only effective drug used against dormant tubercle bacilli?
What is the difference between MDR-TB and XDR-TB?
MDR-TB is resistant to only one frontline drugs and a few 2nd line drugs, where as XDR-TB is resistant to both frontline drug and many 2nd line drugs.
The common Dx for TB infection, but does not indicate an active infection, just that there are tubercle bacilli within the macrophages is called?
tuberculin skin test
What is the name of the test that indicates a probable active TB infection in a very young person, but only indicate hypersensitivity resulting from a previous infection or vaccination in a older person?
What is the most common pneumia?
What is the pathogen that causes Pneumococcal pneumonia?
What are the symptoms of Pneumococcal pneumonia?
Infected alveoli of lung fill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake
reddish appearance of lungs
sputum is often rust colored
What is the reservoir for the disease Pneumococcal pneumonia?
What is the Dx for Pneumococcal pneumonia?
Positive optochin inhibition test or bile solubility test; serological typing of bacteria
What is the Rx for Pneumococcal pneumonia?
Prevention: pneumococcal vaccine
Catagorize and describe Pneumococcal pneumonia.
cell pairs are surrounded by a dense capsul
What is the pathogen of the disease Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
What are the symptoms of Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
Infected alveoli of lun gill with fluids; interferes with oxygen uptake
reddish appearance of lungs
sputum is often rust colored
What is the reservoir for Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia?
Dx for Haemophilu influenzae pneumonia is?
Gram stain will differentiate from streptococcal pneumonia
Isolation; special media for nutritional requirements
What is the Rx for Heamophilus influenzae pneumonia?
What is the pathogen that causes Mycoplasmal pneumonia?
What are the symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia?
mild but persistent respiratory symptoms; low fever, cough, headache
What is the reservoir of Mycoplasma pneumonia?
Dx of Mycoplasma pneumonia
PCR and serological tests
What is the Rx for Mycoplasma pneumonia?
Which pneumonia accounts for 20% of pneumonia in young adults and children?
Describe Mycoplasmal pneumonia
lacks cell wall
colonies so small that magnification is required to see them
colonies grown on media look like a fried egg
What is the pathogen that causes legionellosis?
What are the symptoms of Legionellosis?
potential lethal pneumonia
high fever of 40.5 C.
and general symptoms of pneumonia
What is the reservoir for Legionellosis?
Dx of Legionellosis is
Culture on selective media, DNA probe
What is the Rx for Legionellosis?
What is the less virulent form of legionellosis?
What are the symptoms of Pontiac fever?
True or false Legionella pneumophila are not capable of growing in phagocytes?
What makes legionellosis difficult to kill when it is in its niche?
It is gram negative so its cell wall help protect it from chlorine in low levels
also it grows in biofilms
Which pneumonia is know as "walking pneumonia"?
What is the pathogen that causes Psittacosis?
Psittacosis is also known as?
Symptoms of Psittacosis are?
The reservoir for Psittacosis is?
Psittacosis is transmitted by
inhalation of bird droppings and other bird exudates
Chlamydophila are gram_______ and an obligate______ bacteria.
What part of in the life cycle of Chlamydophila psittacosis is it most likely to be transmitted in the air?
When it has formed into an elemental body
Why are elemental bodies infectious?
they are resistant to environmental stresses.
What is the Rx for an infection by Chlamydophila psittacosis?
What is the Rx for an infection by Chlamydophila pneumonia?
What is the causitive agent of the disease Chlamydial pneumonia?
How does Psittacosis usually get Dx?
growth of bacteria in eggs or cell culture
What is th ereservoir of Chlamydial pneumonia
What are the symtoms of Chlamydial pneumonia?
What are the symptoms of Chlamydial pneumonia?
mild respiratory illness
resembles walking pneumonia/Mycoplasma pneumonia
There is strong evidence between ________ pneumonia and atherosclerosis -the deposisiton of fatty deposits that block arteries
What is the pathogen that causes Q fever?
The pathogen Coxiella burnetii is a obligately ________, ________ bacterium.