respitory ch 23 m flashcards.txt

  1. O2 starvation
    • results in rapid cell death
    • can result in a STROKE
    • failure of either respiratory or cardiac system causes this
  2. Pharynx
    • passageway for food & air
    • chamber for SPEECH production
    • includes tonsils in the walls of pharynx
  3. Tonsils
    protect entryway INTO the body
  4. Trachea
    extends from the LARYNX --> to T5 to the esophagus and then SPLITS into the bronchi
  5. Trachea layers
    • Mucosa layer: cilia & goblet cells
    • submucosa
    • hyaline cartilage: rings (last ring called CARINA)
    • adventitia
  6. Tracheostomy
    • reestablishing airflow if airway is obstructed
    • can be through incision if larynx obstructed
  7. Obstructions that cause need for tracheostomy
    • Crushing injury of LARYNX or chest
    • SWELLING that closes airway
    • VOMIT or foreign object
  8. Alveolar ducts
    Surrounded by Alveolar Sacs & Alveolie
  9. Last ring of Hyaline Cartilage:
    • Type I: where GAS XCHANGE occurs
    • Type II: secrete alveolar fluid containing SURFACTANT (allows for alveoli to EXPAND and reduces surface tension)
    • Alveolar DUST cells: macrophages that clean up the lungs
  11. Forced (labored) Breathing
    • INHALE: sternocleidomasteoid used (and pectorals, scalenes) to lift chest upwards as gasp for air
    • EXHALE: abdomen forces diaphragm UP and intercostal ribs depress
  12. Breathing patterns
    Diaphragmatic breathing: descent of diaphragm causes stomach to BULGE during INhale
  13. O2 transport in the blood
    • OXYhemoglobin contains 98.5% chemically combined OXYGEN and HEMOGLOBIN - inside RBCs
    • only dissolved O2 can be diffused into tissue
  14. CO poisoning
    • Hemoglobin heme group binds to CO with more affinity than O2
    • Treated by administering pure O2 to compete with the CO for the spots on the heme group
  15. CO2 Transport
    • Carried by blood in 3 ways
    • 1. Dissolved in PLASMA
    • 2. Combined w/GLOBIN part of Hb molecule forming carbaminohemoglobin
    • 3. Part of BICARBONATE ion: from CO2 + H20�which dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate ION
  16. Hypoxia
    deficiency of O2, can be relieved by the enzyme erythropoietein which tells red bone marrow to produce more RBC's.
    • 1. Hypoxic Hypoxia: LOW O2 pressure in arterial blood due to FLUID or OBSTRUCTIONS in lungs, or high altitude
    • 2. Anemic Hypoxia: Too little fxning Hemoglobin (Hb): BLOOD affected, hemorrhage or anemia
    • 3. Ischemic Hypoxia: blood flow is too LOW: HEART affected
    • 4. Histotoxic Hypoxia: cyanide poisoning blocks O2 usage
  18. Disorders of respiratory system
    • Asthma
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, Lung CANCER
    • Pulmonary Edema
    • Cystic Fibrosis: no expansion or contraction of lungs due to HARDENING
Card Set
respitory ch 23 m flashcards.txt
ch 23