(plural, grana) A stack of hollow disks formed of thylakoid membrane in a chloroplast. Grana are the sites where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
An organism that only carries out fermentation: such organisms cannot use oxygen and also may be poisoned by it.
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle of the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbhon compound as the first stable intermediate.
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction
The production of ATP by chemiosmosis during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
(plural, stomata) A pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of a leaf. When stomata are open, CO2 enters a leaf, and water and O2 exit. A plant conserves water when its stomata are closed.
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.
The incorporation of carbon from atmospheric CO2 into the carbon in organic compounds. During photosynthesis in a C3 plant, carbon is fixed into a three-carbon sugar as it enters the Calvin cycle. In C4 and CAM plants, carbon is fixed into a four-carbon sugar.
The warming of the atmosphere caused by CO2, CH4, and otehr gases that absorb infrared radiation and slow its escape from Earth's surface.
lactic acid fermentation
Teh conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
The entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organisms; occurs in the cytoplasmic fluid.
The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less thean a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
Short for oxidation-reduction; a chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from one substance (oxidation) and added to another (reduction). Oxidation and reduction always occur together.
The second of two stages of photosynthesis; a cyclic series of chmical reations that occur in the stroma of a chloroplast, using the carbon in CO2 and the ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions to make the energy-rich sugar molecule G3P.
An organism that obtains energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2 by photosynthesis.
electron transport chain
A series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reacions that release energy used to make ATP; located int eh inner membrane of mitochondria, the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, and the plasma membranes of prokaryotes.
In a plant cell, the breakdown of a two-carbon compound produced by the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle produces the two-carbon compound, instead of its usual three-carbon product G3P, when leaf cells fix O2 instead of CO2. Photorespiration produces no sugar molecules or ATP.
A fixed quantity of light energy. The shorter the wavelength of light, the greater the energy of a photon.
The conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.