Which of the following is a result of injecting a hypertonic solution into the vascular space?
Which of the following is a common patient reaction to IV contrast media?
1. warmth at the injection site
Low osmolar contrast media:
Which of the following is TRUE regarding barium sulfate solutions used in CT?
Barium sulfate oral contrast media would be selected instead of iodinated oral contrast media because:
1. it passes through the GI tract more quickly
2. the trauma patient may have a perforated bowel
3. the contrast media stays more dense in the distal GI tract
Which of the following may help to reduce adverse reactions resulting from the administration of IV contrast media?
1. use high osmolar contrast media
2. administer an antihistamine prior to the IV contrast injeciton
3. increase the rate of injection
Which of the following oral contrast agents is better for opacifying the distal small intestine?
1. an ionic iodinated contrast agent
2. a non-ionic iodinated contrast agent
3. barium sulfate
Iodinated IV contrast agents perfuse normal:
Which of the following is NOT a typical adverse reaction to oral contrast media used in CT?
A delay of about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection should be used for a helical scan of the neck.
If there is doubt regarding the sterility of the contrast media, the contrast media must be:
The most common catheter size used in CT is _____ guage.
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's:
The viscosity of IV contrast media can be reduced by:
Why is the cephalic vein a less desirable site for injection then the basilic vein?
A defferecne in density of _____ HU between the aorta and the inferior vena cava would indicated the non-equilibrium phase of enhancement.
There is a substantial enhancement of the liver compared to tumors during the _____ phase, but during the _____ phase, there is the possibility of tumor enhancement, which may make hepatic turmors isodense with liver tissue.
IV contrast agents used in CT increase the attenuation of the x-ray beam due to the concentration of _____ in the agent.
The definition of osmolality is the _____ the contrast agent solution.
The osmolality of plasma is _____ mOsm/kg.
The portal venous phase occurs about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injeciton.
The hepatic arterial phase occurs about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection.
A delay of about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection should be used for a helical scan of the chest.
Which of the following is a typical scan delay following the start of the injection for helical CT examinations of the pancreas?
Exams to rule out _____ would indicate the use of IV contrast media in the chest.
2. hilar mass
3. aortic dissection
To best visualize the stomach wall, which of the following should the patient drink last?
1. iodinated oral contrast media
3. barium sulfate oral contrast
How long does it take to inject 150ml of contrast media with an injection rate of 2 ml/sec.?
The heating unit on a power injection is for _____ of the contrast agent.
What should be done if extravastion is noticed at the injection site?
Which of the following characteristics of an IV contrast agent affects patient tolerance?
1. concentration of iodine
Which of the following is associated with a bi-phasic study of the liver?
1. differentiation of lesions with arterial and portal venous blood supplies
2. two injeciton rates used during the study
3. two images for each slice position
Contrast agents containing barium sulfate:
1. enhance structures because they are absorbed into the blood stream
2. enhance structures because ethey are absorbed through the small intestine
3. pass through the GI tract unchanged
An indication for IV contrast injeciton is to rule out:
When a contrast agent is injected directly into the joint space it is known as _____ contrast.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding ionic contrast agents?
1. ionic agents are charged ions
2. ionic agents dissociate into ions in solution
3. ionic agents ioniaze tissue they contact
The contrast between a lesion and the surrounding tissue may _____ following the injection of contrast media.
2. remain unchanged
3 be degraded
Which of the following is the order in which the pases of IV contrast enhancement occur?
An injection rate of _____ cc/sec. will maintain a dense bolus of IV contract media for a CTA examination and will be tolerated by most patients.
A CT study of the brain to visualize MS plaques may be made more sensitive by using _____ delay after the contrast agent has been injected.
What is the appropriate care to give to a patient with diabetes?
1. if IV contract media is required, use LOCM
2. if the patient is using Metformin, advise them to stop its use 48 hours before IV contrast is administered
3. if the patinet is using Metformin, advise them to resume its use 48 hours after IV contrast administration oly after kidney function has been reassessed and determined to be normal
What is the HU difference between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava during the non-equilibrium phase?
What is the HU difference between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava during the equilibrium phase?
Less than 10 HU
How many seconds does it take for the Hepatic Arterial Phase to occur?
How many seconds does the Portal Venous Phase to occur?
What is used as a negative contrast agent for oral contrast studies?
Air or CO2
Which oral contrast passes thru the gastrointestinal tract more quickly?
How much of a scan delay is used for the pancreas?
How much of a scan delay is used for the kidneys?
How much of a scan delay is used for a routine liver?