True or false:
Ethnicity, cultural background, and language status are interrelated.
Ethnic background is not a significant factor for linguistic diversity.
Are ASL and English the same?
SLPs can/or can’t treat children speaking English as a second language unless have specific training in ESL
What are the four major groups we have descriptive research on?
What is the origin of African American English (AAE)?
What is a simplified and limited communication system between two communities with no common language?
What is more complex system with its own phonological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic rules (used when it starts being passed down to children)?
What is changing from one dialect or speech pattern to another based on the situation and the communication partner?
AAE has it's own ____ and ____rules.
phonological and syntactic
What is changing a diphthong to a vowel?
What position do speakers of AAE have the most differences with?
medial and final
Which of the following is not likely found as a type of word-final consonant ommisions in AAE English?
Final consonant is a nasal
Final consonant is a stop
Final consonant is an affricate
When the following word begins with a consonant
Where would a conosonant cluster reduction most often occur in AAE?
Initial clusters may have sound ___________ in AAE. “strike” becomes “skrike"
Which three occur most frequently in unstressed syllable deletion in AAE?
1-when the syllable is a single vowel
2-when the preceding word ends in a vowel
3-when the proceeding word ends in a vowel
4- in prepositions or conjunctions
when the syllable is a single vowel
Preceding word ends in a vowel
Prepositions or conjunctions
Speakers of ____________ would show these error patterns:
Devoicing final voiced consonants/i/ for /e/ substitution: “pin” substituted for “pen”
/b/ for /v/ in the initial position
“in” substituted for “ing”
AFrican American English
Children of AAE and English show similar________
Which phonological process carries on later in AAE?
final consonant deletion
When Interpreting data for AAE speakers what is the criteria needed?
Look at the Articulatory acquisition in all children
and the Characteristics of African American English
There are currently ____________ native american people in the US.
THere are currently ______ Native American reservations and ______ Alaskan indigenous villages
How many tribal groups are there?
How many NAmerican languages are there
Many NA languages are extinct...how many languages are spoken by more than 1000 people?
What two things are unclear when looking at NA languages?
Language classification system and Origins
Which language group appears to have languages that belong to different language families with no genetic link and the languages are undergoing changes?
NA languages may have _____ sounds than English and Vowels may be _______
Meaning contrasts in NA languages may be produced by changes in ____,_______,______
pitch, tone or length
Some Native American languages have_______
What is the most common sound in NA?
In the Navajo language there are fewer _______, and none in syllable _____ positions
consonant clusters ; final
Most NA languages spoken by
______people and in Oklahoma, only 2 of ____languages are passed onto children
Which language is now acquired second after English?
How many latino people are in the US?
What are the three major Hispanic groups in the US?
Mexican Puerto Rican Caribbean (Cuban)
English has ____ vowels, Spanish has ____vowels
15 vowels , 5vowels
English has 24 consonants—Spanish has _____ consonants
Which four phonemes don't occur in Spanish?
/v,z/ voiceless and voiced "th" and "zh"
What four English phonemes occur in final position in Spanish?
/s, n, r, l, d/
The English initial _____cluster does not occur in Spanish and Spanish rarely has a final ______
What are some common substitutions that Spanish speakers make when speaking English?
/t/ for voiceless “th”
/d/ voiced th, or /a/ voiced th
Substitute y for /d3/ (judge)
“ch” substituted for “sh”
What type of "r" do Spanish speakers use?
Final consonants are often __________ when Spanish speakers speak English.
Spanish speakers often Deaspirate English______ and omit initial ______
stops; initial /h/
How do Spanish speakers speaking English tend to produce /t, d, n/ ?
Which place in the mouth do Spanish speakers generally produce /s/?
/N/ tends to sound like _______ in Spanish/English.
Most Spanish vowels are mastered by _____
Most Spanish phonemes mastered by age _____
Dialectical features appear at age _____ in Spanish speakers
Spanish speakers in early elementary years still have difficulty with ______,_____,_____,_____
Vowels errors on _____ are most frequent in Spanish/English.
what phonological process persists longer in Spanish speaking children than in English speaking children ?
unstressed syllable deletion
some Asian languages are ________
Asian languages often delete these three aspects of speech:
Asian languages often confuse these four English speech sounds:
/r/ and /l/ and “ch” and “sh”
Asian languages often reduce___________
What types of substitutions are common in Asian languages?
/d/ or /z/ substituted for voiced “th”
/t/ or /s/ substituted for voiceless ‘th”
What are the two Chinese dialects?
Mandarin and Cantonese
Chinese is a __________language.
Mandarin has 2 ___________, Cantonese has 7 ______
There are no________________in Chinese.
3 distinctive features of South Asian languages are?
Retroflex production of several English consonants
No difference between /v/ and /w/
South Asian Languages are _______ (no difference between spelling and punctuation)
There are major differences in tone and rhythm in this language?
Is Vietnamese monosyllabic or multisyllabic?
Only voiceless stops and ________ appear as final consonants in Vietnamese and there are no _____________
nasals; no consonant blends
Do the Vietnamese focus on syllable stress?
This tonal language has different vowel stress and speakers often have difficulty with final consonants and consonant clusters?
Which of these are not tonal languages?
______is Derived from the languages of India and French
In Thai all consonants are used in ______ position
Thai speakers often put stress on this syllable.
What language has 75 sub languages, and the main one is Tagalog?
Which language has no consonant clusters in word initial or final position?
Fricatives and ________ are only in initial position in the Korean language.
Korean language tends to sound _______
Japanese has _______ vowels and some may be devoiced in some contexts and only one final consonant which is _________.
Which language may add a vowel to words ending in consonants.
How many vowels does Arabic have?
These sounds are produced with the tongue root retracted toward the posterior wall of the pharynx thus giving a lot of stress to the consonant
Which consonants may be absent in Arabic?
/p/ and /v/
How is /r/ produced in Arabic?
like a tap
Are written and spoken Arabic the same?
no they may be different
________ speaking children acquire phonemes faster than English children.
_____________should be the primary source of information about phonology when assessing for bideialectical vs. bilingual.
conversational speech patterns
FLATC stands for
FISHER-LOGEMANN TEST OF ARTICULATION COMPETENCE
This test looks at all positions, manner, place, and voice, with about 3 pictures on each page and each picture focuses on one phoneme. It also is an older test. What is the name of this test?
FISHER-LOGEMANN TEST OF ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (FLTAC
(GFTA-2) stands for?
GOLDMAN FRISTOE TEST OF ARTICULATION 2ND EDITION
this test is time efficient because each colored picture can have multiple targets, and it is a flip chart style. Which test is this?
GOLDMAN FRISTOE TEST OF ARTICULATION 2ND EDITION (GFTA-2
PAT-III stands for?
PHOTO ARTICULATION TEST 3rd EDITION
This test consists of 9 photographs per page. It only assesses single words and it each position (initial, medial, final) for each phoneme. You can pick from two forms: cards or booklet. Which test is this?
PHOTO ARTICULATION TEST 3rd EDITION (PAT-III)
ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE
This test has one black line drawing per page, and it only tests initial and final positions. It has a single word version and sentence word version. It also may ask more than one prompt per page.
ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
Which test is good for non native speakers of English?
ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
Which test has seperate scores for male and female?
ARIZONA ARTICULATION PROFICIENCY SCALE (AAPS)-3
WEISS COMPREHENSIVE ARTICULATION TEST
This test has one colored picture and phoneme per page. It has sentence closure tasks. And it tests single word, sentence, and connected speech.
WCAT--WEISS COMPREHENSIVE ARTICULATION TEST
STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II
This test features photographs of "Dudsberry". It has a color coded response sheet, and it tests Consonant classifications, inventory, manner, connected speech, word level phonological processes (articulation and phonological processes)
STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II (SPAT-DII)
This test takes into account dialectal differences?
STRUCTURED PHOTOGRAPHIC ARTICULATION TEST…FEATURING DUDSBERRY II (SPAT-DII)
TEST OF MINIMAL ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (
This test is appropriate for Ages 3-Adult. It has multiple black line drawings per page and has three versions: screening version (3-5 minutes), reading version, and sentence version
TEST OF MINIMAL ARTICULATION COMPETENCE (T-MAC)
KAHN LEWIS PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS-2
This is not a test, and it is based on whole word transcription of GFTA-2 (Goldman Frisco.) It focuses on developmental phonological process profile and Phonetic inventory.
KAHN LEWIS PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS-2 (KLPA-2)
ASSESSMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES-REVISED
Has lots of objects and pictures, not all stimuli provided and no normative information. Designed for preschool and elementary children. Not standardized.Best used as analysis for intervention rather than placement
ASSESSMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES-REVISED (APP-R)
Which five tests are most often used?
Which test is rarely used anymore?
Which three tests are best for adults?
Which tests have the stimulability feature?
Which test is not appropriate for adults?
Which tests use sentence closure format?
Which tests look at consonants, vowels, dipthongs?
What is it called when a child learns two langs. at once?
What is it called when a child learns one language and then another later?
What two major errors do we see with bilingual children?
substituting similar sounds from their language and ommitting sounds because they don't occur in the first lang.
What is interference?
Producing sounds in the second lang. but they sound more like native sounds
What is it called when two sounds don't have a difference in native lang. but they do in English and they are hard to distinguish?
What is called when a non-native Eng. speaker overarticulates a sound..usually allophones?
What is considered the critical age for learning two languages?
Structural abnormalities may prevent lip __________ or _________.
Adequately repaired clefts, or surgically altered lip structures may not significantly impact _________.
Teeth are significant articulators for what 3 places of articulation?
Ligua-alveolars (upper teeth)
What is the general term for misalignment of dental arches?
What is the class/term for normal dental arch alignment?
Malocclusion where the front teeth are in atypically positioned but molar alignment is normal?
What is the dental occlusion class/term for overbite?
Class II Distocclusion--Retrognathism
What is the dental occlusion class/term for underbite?
Class III Mesiocclusion--Prognathism
What are 3 functions do you assess in oral-peripheral exam for lips?
Side to Side
Short Lingual Frenum
Total or partial removal of diseased tongue.
Hard palate clefts are usually repaired within the first ___ years of life.
What prosthetic device that is attached to molars helps with eating and accurate speech production?
What physiological mechanism connects (couples) or disconnects (uncouples) the oral and anasal cavities?
What anatomical structure maintains oral resonance, prevents unwanted nasal resonance and builds intraoral air pressure?
Velopharyngeal Port Closure
What are are pressure consonants?
What specific difficulties are associated with Velopharyngeal Inadequacy (difficulty closing nasal port)?
Intra-Oral air pressure building
Air leaks through nasal cavity
Pressure consonants (weak production)
Correct or markedly improved production of sounds through unusual methods of articulation by a child with defective speech structures.
What distinctive feature is a common compensatory pattern for someone with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
Back feature--moving consonant production posteriorly (backing)
Client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce glottal stop substitutions for what phonemes?
Client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce pharyngeal stop for what phonemes?
What place of articulation might a client with velopharyngeal inadequacy may produce fricatives and affricates?
Linguavelar Pharyngeal (everything moves back and down)
What manner/place phonemes are substituted for sibilants and sound like a stop in clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
Velar fricatives /k/ and /g/
Mid-dorsum palatal stops are commonly substituted for what phonemes in clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
Audible air leaking through the nose
Nasal emission (nasal snort)
In clients with velopharyngeal inadequacy, what oral sounds are associated with hypernasality?
To summarize, what 3 compensatory patterns are most associated with velopharyngeal inadequacy?
Sound Substitutions with unusual methods of production
Pressure Consonants are weak
Central or Peripheral Nervous System (or both) damage is the cause of what disorder?
What disorder in children is known as a nonprogressive neurological disorder?
What disorder is caused by damage to the motor programming areas of speech?
Childhood motor speech disorder affecting the motor programming of the articulators affecting articulation and prosody.
Childhood apraxia or Developmental apraxia
What's the difference between childhood and adult apraxia?
No neuropathology/lesions in childhood apraxia
Integrity of the ________ mechanism is essential for typical acquisition and production of speech sounds.
Speed at which a speaker can repeat selected syllables (puh-tuh-kuh)
What percent of school children may have some degree of hearing loss?
Normal hearing children have what advantages?
Aware of S-L in their environment
How well someone's auditory mechanism works
Hearing problem (2-3 % school children)
Person with a hearing loss within the range of 25 dB to 95 dB; has residual hearing that is somewhat useful in assisting in communication.
Hard of Hearing
Person whose hearing loss typically exceeds 70 dB and who cannot hear or understand conversational speech under normal circumstances.
Hearing loss present at birth
Hearing loss where the onset is after birth
Persistent ear infections affect ________ sounds particularly in the _______ positions.
A common error in children with ear infections is to omit _____ consonants or substitute them with the ___ phoneme.
In regard to nasal sounds, children with ear infections tend to produce what common errors?
Nasal Substitutions (/d/ for /n/)
What common error pattern may be retained after ear infection has cleared up?
What dB of hearing is considered Normal (children/adults)?
Slight hearing loss (dB)
Mild hearing loss (dB)
Moderate hearing loss (dB)
Severe hearing loss (dB)
Profound hearing loss (dB)
With hearing loss, there is often omission of the ______ and ______ consonants.
With hearing loss, there is often weak consonant production in the ________ position.
With hearing loss, there is often _______ substitutions, and ________ & _________confusion.
Typical deaf sounding speech is due to ___________.
With hearing loss, there is often insertion of _________ _______ (may be artifact of how these are learned)
With hearing loss, speakers tend to speak at a _______ rate and with more ________.
With hearing loss, speakers tend to have slow articulatory _________.
Speakers with hearing loss tend to speak using inappropriate _______.
Speakers with hearing loss tend to have many errors in ______.
Ability to distinguish between sounds
In Discrimination training, better discrimination is achieved but not better ____________.
Which type of training with speakers of hearing loss results in better discrimination and production?
Speakers with hearing loss should receive which training first discrimination or production?
(probe for discrimination after)
What test of oral sensation places a 3-D object in client's mouth and asks them to identify from a group of pictures what shape they have in their mouth?
Oral Form Recognition
What test of oral sensation stimulates the tongue at two points?
2-Point Sensory Discrimination
What type of test of oral sensation studies the effects of sensory deprivation in articulation?
1. Fricative & Affricate misarticulation
2. Tongue Retroflexion & Lip Rounding difficulties
3. Posterior Positioning of articulators
4. Duration increases in Consonants
5. Air Pressureincreases intraorally
are all associated with what type of test study in adults?
Patients with ________ deficits may be tested using a anesthetized study because it indicates their potential for ________.
What percentage of preschool children with one disorder have a co-existing one?
Children with _________ disorders produce less complex language, shorter utterances, and incomplete sentences.
Increases in ________ results in increase in errors as well (consonant clusters).
In children with S-L disorder reading may be impacted; what is most affected?
To determine impact of S-L disorder on reading, __________ should be viewed separate from __________.
Intelligence shows to have an impact on language skills; what scoring individuals have higher prevalence of articulation disorders?
Below normal IQ
What's the significance of birth order and number of siblings on language skills?
First born & Only child speak better
Siblings spaced further apart may speak better
What factors are associated with familial prevalence of articulation disorders?
Siblings of child w/ artic disorders do poorly on tests
Children of parents w/ artic disorders do poorly on test
Pattern of deviant or reverse swallow in which the position of the tongue at rest is foward and often protrudes.
Tongue thrust is considered typical in children younger than ___ so most often is not treated until child is older.
Phonological process of tongue thrusters during speech where the tongue comes out and is seen or between the teeth (looks like a lizard)?
What are the 2 types of tongue thrusting?
Organic (tonsils, allergies, etc.)
Tongue position of tongue thrusters may result in what dental abnormality?
Tongue thrusting can cause an articulation disorder-lisp, what production errors often occur but may not affect acoustic properties?
/z/ & /l/ Distortions
/t/ /d/ /n/ & /l/ Interdental Productions
In what setting is tongue thrust treatment not typically provided?
In screening assessment, a _______ score suggests no further assessment needed
In screening assessment, a _______ score suggests neef forfurther assessment.
Nonstandardized procedures of assessment may use specific questions designed to elicit ________ verbal utterances.
When having clients read selected passages for assessment purposes, we must be aware of their ______ and ______ level.
Associated factors (attributing or causing problem)
What must we have before getting either oral or written information from other professionals?
HIPAA release form (privacy)
What type of questions are employed during the opening interview with client or guardian?
Asking a client to look at a picture and tell us what it is would be an example of what type of allowable prompt in evoking response during standardized testing?
If a client responds with a word other than the target desired, a prompt such as "That's right that is a bunny; another name for this animal is a rabbit; can you tell me what this is?" would be an example of what type of prompt?
Delayed Imitation Task
If a target word has not been elicited from either Spontaneous or Delayed Imitation Task, what is the last resulting prompt an SLP may employ when standardized testing?
Immediate (Direct) Imitation
When response recording, what are the 3 types of speech sound disorders?
(Addition)--not typically seen in functional disorders
What are additional factors that should be considered before choosing a test for standardized testing?
Time of administration
Type of score needed
Other variables (ex. interests of the client)
What are 3 benefits of using whole word phonetic transcription?
More than one sound can be analyzed
Phonetic context is considered looking for pattern
Phonological processes may more likely be identified
In O-P exam, what type of facial characteristics are noted?
What tasks do we ask client to perform with their lips during O-P exam?
Side-to Side ("church lady" on SNL)
What do we test in re: to the tongue during O-P exam?
Elevate without moving mandible
Diadochokinetic rate ("puh-teh-kah")
In O-P exam, what is the method for assessing the occlusion of the teeth?
Retracting cheek with tongue blade
Shining flashlight to exam molar alignment
What abnormality of the velum suggests that something did not fuse when the skull was being developed?
What abnormality is assessed when eliciting the gag reflex in the O-P exam?
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI)
What abnormality of the hard palate may be present if you note what looks like a dark spot on the palate?
Hole that has not closed after cleft palate surgery
When examining the tonsils and fauces of the pharynx during O-P exam what might we be looking for?
Extent to which a misarticulated sound can be produced correctly by imitation or other cues.
In what segments of speech production can stimulability be tested?