His 316 Exam

  1. Plate Tectonics
    • o A scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of Earth's tectonic plates.
    • o The theory builds on the older concepts of continental drift
  2. Pangaea
    o States that all present continents were once together and collectively known as a'supercontinent' called a Pangaea.
  3. Lateen Sails
    o Triangular in shape
  4. Indian Ocean
    o First Maritime Crossroads

    o Largest commodity exchanged was religion, the largest being Islam

    o Wind and weather determined trade

    • o Economic benefits to being Muslim, tax
    • breaks ext.

    o 4,000 Years of trading, language, religion, and culture

    oPorts of Indian ocean were diverse

    o India did not produce a lot of commodities but served as a weigh station and warehouse
  5. Quffa
    • o Vessel made of reeds
    • o Used tar for outside and inside of vessel to make it more water resistant
    • o Fiber Vessel
  6. Dhows
    o Triangular sail (Lateen sail)

    o Built of wood

    • o Longer lived reliable, larger, sewn
    • together
  7. Perilous of the Eritrean Sea
    • o A book that helped mariners know what the sea
    • would be like in a particular area

    • o Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea,
    • and others along Northeast Africa and India.
  8. Spice Islands
    • o Produced wood, medications from plants, and perfume
    • o Had high value low volume goods
  9. Chinese
    o Junk vessels

    o Built vessels using joints

    • o Exported silk, porcelain, sandal wood
    • o Lots of consumers
    • o Fleet of 300 vessels, six times larger than Christopher Columbus’
  10. Atlantic World
    • o Until 1420 the Atlantic ocean was thought of as
    • a barrier

    • o Wind and weather patterns effected the Gulf
    • winds
    • o Second largest ocean
    • o Most trafficked area, a lot of ports
    • o Need a very reliable vessel that will allow you
    • to tack, take harsh conditions and large enough to carry cargo that can turn a profit
  11. Caravel
    o A small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.

    • o Combines best aspects of all ships, galley, lateen sails
    • o The lateen sails gave her speed and the capacity for sailing to windward (beating).

    o Combines the best aspects of all ships
  12. Volta Do Mar
    o Portuguese discovered it in 1250

    o Meaning- Return of the Sea

    o Allowed sailors to make round trip voyages
  13. Portuguese
    • o Made a lot of money in Swahili
    • o Went to Asia for spices
    • o Religion Islam
    • o Spain were their main rivals
    • o Had heavily fortified islands in africa
    • o Big in gold and silver
    • o Government operation
  14. Spain
    • o Private monolpoly from Sevilla
    • o 20% of profits went to government in exchange for protection
    • o Less ships than portugues but they were larger which saved money due to a smaller crew
    • o 2 Armodas
    • o New Spain Flota
    • o Terra Firme Flota
  15. Columbian
    • o Named after Christopher Columbus
    • o Language and religion
    • o Bio Mantu- Living exchange for dieses
    • o A Lot of people died in East Africa due to European dieses
    • o Columbian Exchange helped old world people, population grew due to food (potatoes)
  16. Sugar
    o New world brought sugar

    o Used to make alcohol

    o Very labor intensive

    o Slaves were used to produce the sugar
  17. Middle
    • o The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa
    • were taken to the New World, as part of the Atlantic
    • slave trade.
  18. Triangle
    o Wealth of nation is the political Ideology behind the trade in the Atlantic world

    o Monarchy has a king or queen

    o John Locke outlines the philosophy “if no one likes the king then don’t like him.

    o People were against the king and monarchy
  19. Mercantilism
    o An economic theory that holds the prosperity of a state is dependent upon its supply of capital, that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable," and that one party may benefit only at the expense of another.
  20. Pacific Ocean
    • Broken into 3 regions
    • o Polynesia- Many islands
    • o Melanesia- Black Island
    • o Micronesia- Small Island.

    • o New way to refer to the pacific islands
    • o Near Oceania- Closer to Asia
    • o Remote Oceania-Closer to the Americas
    • o Polynesian triangle- New Zealand, Hawaii, Easter Island
    • o Islands closer to Asia were discovered first
    • o Bird migration patterns were used to help discover land
    • o Historians used artistic, languages, and other types of evidence to determine migration patterns of the islands
    • o Pacific means- Gental or peaceful
    • o The Phillipeans were used as a warehouse for the pacific
    • o Dutch, English and Spanish all wanted part of the pacific
    • o Dutch had a strangle on the spices
    • o Took about 300 years to completely discover the pacific, islands were still being discovered in
    • WWII
  21. Lapita
    o The name comes from Lapita in New Caledonia

    • o The term Lapita refers to an ancient Pacific culture that archaeologists believe to be the common ancestor of the contemporary cultures of Polynesia, Micronesia,
    • and some areas of Melanesia.
  22. Polynesian
    o The far islands are linked and the close islands are not

    o People form Hawaii and Tahiti have very similar language
  23. Island
    o Formed from Coral or volcanoes
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His 316 Exam
First Exam