1. What were the effects of the spice trade on the Europeans in the 1400's?
    Italian merchants controlled most trade between Asia and Europe
  2. Describe the trade route to the West Indies
    • Took a year to travel
    • Very dangerous (Robbers)
    • Spices were needed
    • Traveled in caravans
  3. What were obstacles explorers had to face?
    • Scurvy
    • Poor navigational tools
    • Poor Maps
    • Fear of the unknown
    • Lacked supplies
  4. What were the accomplishments of the explorers?
    • Exchanged goods and ideas
    • improved ships and maps
    • Claimed Territories
  5. What were the motives that dove Europeans to explore the world?
    • The economy
    • Religious
    • competition for empire and belief in superiority of own culture
    • Desire for spices
    • Wealth
  6. Cartographers
    created more accurate mapsand sea charts
  7. Astrolabs
    Determined their latitude at sea
  8. Caravel
    • combined square european sails anf arab triangular sails
    • rutter in the back center
    • Protoguese ship
  9. Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator)
    • Mapped the Afrucan coast
    • Portuguese Explorer
    • Patron of Exploration
    • School to train explorers to sail
  10. Bartholomeu Dias
    • Explored the Southern Tip of Africa
    • Discovered the Cape of Good Hope
  11. Vasco da Gama
    Sailed through the Cape of Good Hope to India
  12. Scurvy
    Disease caused by the lack of Vitamin C
  13. Francisco Coronado
    Clamied the SW US for spain
  14. Christopher Columbus
    • Born in Genoa Italy
    • Discovered the Americas
    • Thought it was India
  15. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
    • Spanish explorer
    • clamied the Pacific ocean and adjoining lands for spain
    • "south Sea"
  16. Ferdinand Magellan
    • Named the Pacific Ocean from Lt. Pacificus (Calm)
    • Found the Straight of Magellan
    • 1st to sail around the World
  17. Circumnavigate
    Sail around the world
  18. Columbia Exchange
    Exchange between america and other places
  19. John Cabot
    • found fishing grounds off Newfoundland
    • english
    • found a northern route to NA
    • 1497
  20. Jacques Cartier
    • French
    • Explored the St. Lawerence River
  21. Henry Hudson
    • Dutch
    • Explored the Hudson River
  22. Amerigo Vespucci
    • Italian
    • Mapped America
    • Wrote "New World"
    • Believed americas were a new landmass and not part of asia
    • America's named after him
  23. conquistadors
    spanish conquerers of the Americas
  24. Immunity
    Resistance from diseases
  25. Hernan Cortes
    • Spanish Conquistador
    • Conquered the Aztecs
    • 1519-1521
    • Thought he was the sun god
  26. Francisco Pizarro
    • 1532
    • Conquered the Incans
    • Clamied most of SA for Spain
  27. Reasons for the spanish victory in SA
    • Better military technology
    • Division and discontent among the indians
    • Disease kill 80% of the natives
    • Many iandians believed the disasters they suffered marked the worlds end
  28. who were the first 2 european groups to explore the world?
    Portugual and Spain
  29. What was the only influence of Portugual in SA? Who was the rest controlled by?
    • Brazil
    • Spain
  30. what do spain and portugual attepmt to do to help the church?
    Spread Christianity
  31. What were the 2 catholic nations?
    Spain and Portugual
  32. viceroy
    representatives who ruled in the kings name
  33. Plantations
    large estates run by an owner or the owner's overseer
  34. Encomiendas
    The right to demand labor or tribute form Native Americans in a particular area in return for spreading religion
  35. Privateers
    Pirates who operated with the approval of the european government against spain france and england
  36. Who claimed parts of the americas?
    • Spain
    • France
    • The Netherlands
    • England
    • Sweeden
  37. Name of the fist permanent french settlement and year founded?
    • Quebec
    • 1608
  38. First english settlement and year?
    • Jamestown, VA
    • 1607
  39. Which 2 european powers were rivals in the 1700's?
    Britain and France
  40. What war did france and britain start and where did it spread? years
    • Severn years war
    • India and Africa
    • 1754-1763
  41. What treaty ended the seven years war? year signed
    • Treaty of Paris
    • 1763
  42. missionaries
    spread christianity to the native americans
  43. Revenues
    income from taxes
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