1. What are the four structural issues confronting contemporary American families?
    • divorce
    • remarriage
    • maternal employment
    • economic stress and povery
  2. What are some of the distinguising features of African American families?
    • family roles are more flexible
    • less gender specific
    • low wages
  3. What are some of the distinguising features of Latino families?
    • more traditional
    • father = head of house
    • differentiated gender roles
  4. What are some of the distinguising features of Native American families?
    • compartmentalized
    • high dropout rates
    • poverty
    • disease
    • illiteracy
    • alcoholism
    • high mortality rates
    • lowest life expectancy
  5. What are some of the distinguising features of European American families?
    • individually focused
    • low dropout rates
    • low poverty
    • do not depend on family as much
  6. What are two dimensions of parenting?
    responsiveness and demandingness
  7. What are four styles of parenting?
    • authoritarian
    • authoritative
    • permissive
    • neglectful
  8. What contributions do adolescents bring to the parent-adolescent relationship?
    new thoughts and experiences
  9. What is important to know about parents and middle age as it affects adolescents?
    • adolescents are striving for independence while parents are worried about losing them and getting older
    • adolescents are in their prime while parents are declining
  10. What are some key aspects of Family Systems Theory?
    • homeostasis
    • wholeness
    • interdependence- emotional mobile
    • rules- explicit (very clear) and implicit (unspoken)
    • roles
    • communication styles- verybal, nonverbal, and contextual
    • boundaries- open (more flexible) and closed (rigid)
  11. How does divorce affect adolescent development?
    • how bad the marital conflict is
    • change in parenting
    • economic stress
    • gender (boys struggle more than girls)
    • age (older kids handle it better than younger)
  12. Sleeper effects
    • problems arise later
    • result of less monitoring
  13. How does remarriage affect adolescent development?
    • kids may act out
    • step-parent's involvement in parenting (the less the better)
  14. How does maternal employment affect adolescent development?
    • middle and upper class kids struggle more
    • boys struggle more
    • better when mother wants to work
  15. How do economic stress and poverty affect adolescent development?
    • struggle more at school
    • more irritable
    • more deliquent
    • girls more likely to think about marriage early
    • boys don't respect dad
    • violence
    • depression
    • stress
  16. Promotive parenting strategy
    attempt to strengthen child's competence through more activities inside and outside the home
  17. Restrictive parenting strategy
    attempt to minimize exposure to dangerous neighborhood
  18. What are shared evironmental influences?
    nongenetic influences that make individuals living in the same family similar to each other
  19. What are nonshared environmental influences?
    the nongenetic influences in individuals's lives that make them different from people they live with
  20. What is the effect of poverty or financial hardship on parenting styles?
    more likely to be authoritarian
  21. Friendships
    • close, small, personal relationships
    • share feelings
    • less demanding with respect to conformity
  22. Peers
    • school/classmates
    • same age
  23. What purpose do friendships serve during adolescence?
    • support
    • feedback
    • gossip
    • personal disclosure
  24. What are the friendship pattern differences between boys and girls?
    • girls- conversation/discussion
    • boys- shared activities
  25. What are the four functions of peer groups?
    • social interaction skills
    • clarify moral standards and values
    • emotional support
    • informative/advisary function
  26. What changes in society have caused the peer group to become more important in America?
    • the baby boom
    • technology
  27. Cliques
    • same age, sex, and race
    • up to 12 people
    • take on powerful, exclusionary approach
  28. Crowds
    • 3 or more cliques together
    • boys and girls mixed
    • shared activity/theme
  29. How does the function of peer groups change over the course of adolescence?
    • early- trust and emotional sharing is important (especially with girls), intense, dating (how girls climb up social ladder)
    • late- intensity decreases, intimacy increases, boys continue to maintain relationships through shared activities
  30. How do peers affect adolescent identity?
    reference group (source of social insight)
  31. What demographic variables affect clique formation?
    • age
    • sex
    • race
  32. Why is popularity important?
    • popular- good in social situations, behaviorally appropriate, confident
    • rejected- hard to be around (conceited, insensitive, crude), more likely to be boys
    • neglected- shy, inhibited, forgotten
  33. How is physical appearance important?
    • perceived attractiveness
    • social attributions
    • interaction
    • personality interaction
    • behavioral style
    • behavioral manifestation
  34. Sex cleavage
    the separation of boys and girls into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence
  35. What are the effects of being unsupervised after school during adolescence?
    increased chance of bullying, alcohol/drug use, and sex
  36. What are the relevant historical changes in the US related to schools today?
    • industrialization
    • urbanization
    • immigration
  37. What are the three basic areas of research regarding schools as developmental contexts?
    • schooling process
    • social ecology
    • social demography
  38. How would you characterize research related to the social ecology approach?
    how different aspects of school affects students
  39. What is important to know about school size?
    smaller schools tend to be better
  40. What are considered positive characteristics of a good teacher?
    • spend time on a task
    • set expectations
    • flexible
    • allow student participation
  41. What are the different ways in which traking affects students?
    • extreme separation and segregation
    • more attention to smarter students
  42. How do teachers affect differences in boys and girls in school?
    • girls are expected to be good in reading and bad at math
    • boys are expected to be good at math and science and bad at reading
  43. What is the difference between middle schools and jr. high schools?
    middle schools are more like elementary schools with more adult support
  44. What is the difference betwee public and private schools for students?
    private schools can choose the students they enroll
  45. What do we know about minority students today in school?
    dropout rates have decreased
  46. What is cooperative learing and how is it a useful tool in the classroom?
    • students work together with different abilities
    • students with higher abilities help those with lower abilities
  47. What are the five characteristics of good schools?
    • atmosphere of quality education
    • committed teachers
    • performance evaluations
    • well integrated in community
    • positive classroom atmosphere
  48. What are the four areas of research interest for researchers using the Life Course approach?
    school transitions, peer network, dropout, family
  49. How does class size affect adolescents in school?
    it generally doesn't
  50. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    the idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by others' expectations for them
  51. Higher-order thinking
    some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others
  52. What are the factors that positively affect school climates for adolescents?
    • high student involvement
    • strong bonds with teachers
    • promoting cooperation instead of competition
  53. Social capital
    the interpersonal resources available to an adolescent or family
  54. What impact do teacher expectations have on student performance?
    • the higher the expectations the better they do
    • the lower the expectations the worse they do
Card Set
Family, peer, and school contexts for adolescents.