What are the four structural issues confronting contemporary American families?
- maternal employment
- economic stress and povery
What are some of the distinguising features of African American families?
- family roles are more flexible
- less gender specific
- low wages
What are some of the distinguising features of Latino families?
- more traditional
- father = head of house
- differentiated gender roles
What are some of the distinguising features of Native American families?
- high dropout rates
- high mortality rates
- lowest life expectancy
What are some of the distinguising features of European American families?
- individually focused
- low dropout rates
- low poverty
- do not depend on family as much
What are two dimensions of parenting?
responsiveness and demandingness
What are four styles of parenting?
What contributions do adolescents bring to the parent-adolescent relationship?
new thoughts and experiences
What is important to know about parents and middle age as it affects adolescents?
- adolescents are striving for independence while parents are worried about losing them and getting older
- adolescents are in their prime while parents are declining
What are some key aspects of Family Systems Theory?
- interdependence- emotional mobile
- rules- explicit (very clear) and implicit (unspoken)
- communication styles- verybal, nonverbal, and contextual
- boundaries- open (more flexible) and closed (rigid)
How does divorce affect adolescent development?
- how bad the marital conflict is
- change in parenting
- economic stress
- gender (boys struggle more than girls)
- age (older kids handle it better than younger)
- problems arise later
- result of less monitoring
How does remarriage affect adolescent development?
- kids may act out
- step-parent's involvement in parenting (the less the better)
How does maternal employment affect adolescent development?
- middle and upper class kids struggle more
- boys struggle more
- better when mother wants to work
How do economic stress and poverty affect adolescent development?
- struggle more at school
- more irritable
- more deliquent
- girls more likely to think about marriage early
- boys don't respect dad
Promotive parenting strategy
attempt to strengthen child's competence through more activities inside and outside the home
Restrictive parenting strategy
attempt to minimize exposure to dangerous neighborhood
What are shared evironmental influences?
nongenetic influences that make individuals living in the same family similar to each other
What are nonshared environmental influences?
the nongenetic influences in individuals's lives that make them different from people they live with
What is the effect of poverty or financial hardship on parenting styles?
more likely to be authoritarian
- close, small, personal relationships
- share feelings
- less demanding with respect to conformity
- same age
What purpose do friendships serve during adolescence?
- personal disclosure
What are the friendship pattern differences between boys and girls?
- girls- conversation/discussion
- boys- shared activities
What are the four functions of peer groups?
- social interaction skills
- clarify moral standards and values
- emotional support
- informative/advisary function
What changes in society have caused the peer group to become more important in America?
- same age, sex, and race
- up to 12 people
- take on powerful, exclusionary approach
- 3 or more cliques together
- boys and girls mixed
- shared activity/theme
How does the function of peer groups change over the course of adolescence?
- early- trust and emotional sharing is important (especially with girls), intense, dating (how girls climb up social ladder)
- late- intensity decreases, intimacy increases, boys continue to maintain relationships through shared activities
How do peers affect adolescent identity?
reference group (source of social insight)
What demographic variables affect clique formation?
Why is popularity important?
- popular- good in social situations, behaviorally appropriate, confident
- rejected- hard to be around (conceited, insensitive, crude), more likely to be boys
- neglected- shy, inhibited, forgotten
How is physical appearance important?
- perceived attractiveness
- social attributions
- personality interaction
- behavioral style
- behavioral manifestation
the separation of boys and girls into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence
What are the effects of being unsupervised after school during adolescence?
increased chance of bullying, alcohol/drug use, and sex
What are the relevant historical changes in the US related to schools today?
What are the three basic areas of research regarding schools as developmental contexts?
- schooling process
- social ecology
- social demography
How would you characterize research related to the social ecology approach?
how different aspects of school affects students
What is important to know about school size?
smaller schools tend to be better
What are considered positive characteristics of a good teacher?
- spend time on a task
- set expectations
- allow student participation
What are the different ways in which traking affects students?
- extreme separation and segregation
- more attention to smarter students
How do teachers affect differences in boys and girls in school?
- girls are expected to be good in reading and bad at math
- boys are expected to be good at math and science and bad at reading
What is the difference between middle schools and jr. high schools?
middle schools are more like elementary schools with more adult support
What is the difference betwee public and private schools for students?
private schools can choose the students they enroll
What do we know about minority students today in school?
dropout rates have decreased
What is cooperative learing and how is it a useful tool in the classroom?
- students work together with different abilities
- students with higher abilities help those with lower abilities
What are the five characteristics of good schools?
- atmosphere of quality education
- committed teachers
- performance evaluations
- well integrated in community
- positive classroom atmosphere
What are the four areas of research interest for researchers using the Life Course approach?
school transitions, peer network, dropout, family
How does class size affect adolescents in school?
it generally doesn't
the idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by others' expectations for them
some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others
What are the factors that positively affect school climates for adolescents?
- high student involvement
- strong bonds with teachers
- promoting cooperation instead of competition
the interpersonal resources available to an adolescent or family
What impact do teacher expectations have on student performance?
- the higher the expectations the better they do
- the lower the expectations the worse they do