Anatomy Lecture 30

  1. Uterus:
    • location
    • shape and size
    • anteverted, anteflexion vs retroflexion
    • body
    • fundus
    • isthmus
    • cervix:
    • neck of the uterus that projects into the vagina
    • cervical canal
    • external os (opening of the cervix that communicates with the vagina)
    • internal os (opening that communicates with the uterus)
  2. lecture notes
  3. histology of uterine wall:
    • perimetrium: outer layer (visceral peritoneum)
    • myometrium: middle layer of smooth muscle, 90% of the mass of the uterus
    • endometrium: glandular lining of the uterus, % of the mass of the uterus
    • consists of two functional layers:
    • stratum functionalis: inner layer, contains glands, blood vessels and is shed during menstruation
    • stratum basalis: deeper layer, glands originates from the basalis, forms the new stratum functionalis after menstruation
  4. lecture notes
  5. blood supply:
    • uterine arteries:
    • branches of the internal iliac arteries in the pelvis
    • travel along the side of the uterus body and send branches into the uterine wall
    • arcuate arteries, straight arteries, spiral arteries
  6. Supports of the uterus:
    • broad ligament
    • three pairs of suspensory ligaments:
    • uterosacral ligament: lateral surface of the uterus to the anterior face of the sacrum
    • round ligament: from side of the uterus , through the inguinal canal and anchors in the external genitalia
    • lateral ligaments: from the base of the uterus to the lateral walls of the pelvis
    • pelvic floor
    • peritoneal folds: vesicouterine pouch (between the bladder and uterus), rectouterine pouch (between the rectum and uterus)
  7. lecture notes
  8. Vagina:
    • location
    • shape and size
    • functions
    • fornix
    • vaginal uterine angle
  9. lecture notes
  10. blood supply of the vagina:
    uterine artery and veins also supply the vagina
  11. histology of the vagina:
    • mucosa: stratified squamous (produces glycogen which is metabolized by bacteria into lactic acid)
    • muscularis: inner circular and very thick outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle
    • adventitia
  12. lecture notes
  13. vulva or pudendum:
    • External genitalia (external to the vagina)
    • mons pubis: adipose tissue overlying the pubic bone
    • labia majora: large lips, two elongated fatty folds of skin, homologous the scrotum, sebaceous and sweat glands
    • labia minora: small lips, two thin fat free folds of skin
    • vestibule: opening into the vagina
    • greater vestibular glands: two pea sized glands on both sides of the vaginal opening, homologous to the bulbourethral glands in the male
    • clitoris: composed of erectile tissue homologous to the corpora cavernosa in the male, prepuce
  14. lecture notes
  15. Mammary glands:
    • External genitalia (external to the vagina)
    • modified sweat glands
    • produce and secrete milk
    • consists of 15-20 lobes that contain glands
    • connective tissue septa separate the lobes and function as suspensory ligaments that attach the breast to the underlying muscle and to the overlying skin (natural support for the breast)
    • lactiferous ducts
    • lactiferous sinuses
    • nipple
    • areola
  16. lecture notes
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Anatomy Lecture 30