Key Terms for Criminal Justice

  1. Actus Reus
    An element of a crime constituting the physical act required to be culpable of the crime
  2. ACT utilitarianism
    The type of utilitarianism that determines the goodness of a particular act by measuring the utility (good) for all, but only for that specific act and without regard for future actions.
  3. Age Of Reason
    The legal age at which a person is said to have the capacity to reason and, thus, to understand the consequences of his or her action.
  4. Applied Ethics
    The study of what is right and wrong pertaining to a specific profession or subjec.
  5. Aspirational Code
    A code that sets a high standard of behavior with the knowledge that many employees will not live up to it at all times
  6. Asset Forfeiture
    A legal tool used to confiscate property and money associated with organized criminal activity
  7. Attorney-client Privilege
    The legal rule by which an attorney cannot disclose confidential information regarding his or her client except for in a very few specified circumstances.
  8. Authority
    Unquestionable entitlement to be obeyed that comes from fulfilling a specific role.
  9. Backsheesh
    Graft (gratuity)
  10. Blue Curtain Of Secrecy
    Another name for the CODE OF SILENCE or the practice of police officers to remain silent when fellow officers commit unethical actions.
  11. Bureaucratic Justice
    The approach in which each is trated as one of many; the actors merely follow the rules and walk through the step;, and the goal is efficiency.
  12. Burnout
    The condition in which a worker has abandoned the mission of the organization and is just "going through the motions"
  13. Categorical Imperatives
    The concept that some thighs just must be, with no need for further justification, explanation, or rationalization for why they exixt (Kant's Categorical Imperative refers to the imperative that you should do your duty, act in a way you want everyone else to act, and don't use people)
  14. Civil Disobedience
    Voluntarily breaking established laws besed on one's moral beliefs.
  15. Civilian review/complain model
    The use of an outside agancy or board that includes citizens and monitors and/or investigates misconduct complaints against police.
  16. Code of silence
    The practice of officers not to come forward when they are aware of the ethical transgresions of other officers
  17. Cognitive Dissonace
    Psychological term refering to the discomfort that is created when behavior and attitude or belief are inconsistent
  18. Community Corrections
    A term that encompasses halfway house, work-release centers, probation, parole, and any other intermediate sanctions, such as electronic monitoring, either as a condition of probation or as a sentence in itself that takes place in the community rather than prison
  19. Community Policing
    A model of law enforcement that creates partnerships with the community and addresses underlying problems rather than simply enforcing the law.
  20. Commutative Justice
    The component of justice that is concerned with the fairness of contracts and business relations.
  21. Confirmatory Bias
    Fixating on a preconceived notion and ignoring other possibilities, i.e. in regard to a specific suspect during a plice investigation.
  22. Conflict Paradigm
    The idea that groups in society have fundamental differences and that those in power control societal elements, including law.
  23. Consensus Paradigm
    The idea that most people have similar beliefs, values, and goals and that societal laws reflect the majority view
  24. Citizen Review Board
    Board of twenty citizens comprised to review complaints against the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department.
  25. Blue lies
    Are those told to and individual to aboid the use of force and make the situation easier at the moment.
  26. Corrective Justice
    The component of justice that is concerned with punishments and sanctions.
  27. Criminalist
    The profession involved in the application of science to recognize, identify, and evaluate physical evidence in court proceedings.
  28. Dirty Harry
    The question of whether police should use immoral means to reach a desired moral end (taken from a Clint Eastwood movie)
  29. Dropsy
    In dropsy testimony, officers report that a drug suspect drooped the drugs and ran.
  30. Due Process
    Due process is the sequence of steps taken by the state that is designed to eliminate or at least minimize error.
  31. Drylabbing
    Making up information.
  32. Egoism
    The ethical system that defines the pursuit of self-interest as a moral good.
  33. Ethical Delema
    Situations in which it is difficut to make a decision, either because the right course of action is not clear or the right course of action carries some negative consequences.
  34. Ethics Of Care
    The ethical system that defines good as meeting the needs of others and preserving and enriching relationships.
  35. Exclusionay Rule
    Court-Created rule of evidence that excluddes evidence obtained through illegal means, except in certain instances, such as "good faith," "public safety," and "inevitable discovery"
  36. Factual Judgment
    A judgment based on facts.
  37. Graft
    Any exploitation of one's role, such as accepting bribes, protection money, or kickbacks
  38. Grass Eaters
    Those who are fairly passive in their deviant practices of taking bribes, gratuities, and unsolicited protection.
  39. Gray areas of crime
    Infractions such as prostitution, gambling, and drug use that do not carry the moral opprobrium of other crimes.
  40. Halo Effect
    The phenomenon in which a person whith expertise or status in one area is given deference in all areas.
  41. James Madison
  42. Legal Paternalism
    Refers to laws that protect individuals from hurting themselves. Such as seat belts laws.
  43. Marxist
  44. McNaughten Rule
    A legal test of insanity
  45. Meat-Eaters
    Meat eaters deviant officers who engage in shakedowns, "shop" at burglary scenes, and engage in more deviant practices that "grass eaters"
  46. Natural Law
    Idea that principles of morals and rights are inherent in nature and not human-made; such laws are discovered by reason but exitst apart from humankind.
  47. Noble-cause corruption
    Bad acts that are done for the good end of crime control.
  48. Paradigm
    A schema or organization of knowledge; a way of seeing the world.
  49. Parens Patriae
    Model of the juvenile justice system that describes the state as a substitute for parents
  50. Religious Ethics
    The ethical system that is based on religious beliefs of good and evel; what is good is that which is God's will.
  51. Restorative Justice
    An approach to corrective justice that focuses on meeting the needs of all concerned.
  52. Rotten-Apple argument
    The proposition that officer alone is deviant and that it was simply a mistake to hire him or her.
  53. Shadow Jury
    A panel of people selected by the defense attorney to represent the actual jury; sits through the trial and provides feedback to the attorney on the evidence presented during the trial.
  54. Social Contract
    The concept developed by Hobbes, Rousseau, and Locke in which the state of nature is a "war of all against all" and , thus, individuals give up their liberty to aggress against others in return for safety; the contract is between society, which promises protection, and the individual, who promises to abide by laws.
  55. Street Justice
    Individual discretion in applying the law.
  56. Superogatories
    Actions that are commendable but not required in order for a person to be considerd moral.
  57. Testilying
  58. Utilitarianism
    The ethical system that claims that the greatest good is that which results in the greatest happiness for the greatest number; major proponents are Bentham and Mill.
  59. Valuse
    Judgments of desirability, worth, or imprtance.
  60. Zero-tolerance policy
    The law endorcement approach whereby small violations and ordinaces are enforced to the maximum with the expectation that this will reduce more serious crime.
Card Set
Key Terms for Criminal Justice
Key Terms and Vocabulary Samething