Phonation Test

  1. What are the three primary cartilages of the larynx?
    • Thyroid
    • Cricoids
    • Arytenoids
  2. Cricoid
    • Lowest cartilage
    • Shaped like a signet ring
    • Froms foundation
    • Sits on top of the trachea
  3. Thyroid
    • Above cricoid
    • Largest cartilage
    • Similar to a shield
    • Adam's Apple at front
    • Four horns (superior=top; inferior=bottom)
  4. How does the thyroid move?
    • Rocks up and down
    • Slides forward and back
    • Synovial joint allows it to move
  5. Arytenoids
    • Sit on the back of the cricoid
    • Three pointed tips: muscular process in back, apex at top, vocal process in front
  6. How do the arytenoids move?
    • Side to Side
    • Pivot
    • Synovial joint allows movement
  7. Epiglottis
    Cartilage keeps foor or liquid from entering the trachea and lungs.
  8. Intrinsic Muscles
    • Inside the larynx
    • Vocal Folds
    • External thyroarytenoid
    • Cricothyroid
    • Interarytenoid
    • Cricoarytenoid
  9. Vocal Folds
    • Come together and Vibrate
    • Multiple layers
    • - internal thyroarytenoid (vocalis)
    • - vocal ligament (covers conus elasticus)
    • - Reinke's Space
  10. External Thyroarytenoid
    • Fills space between vocalis and walls of thryroid
    • Helps close the vocal folds by pulling forward on the arytenoids when contracted
  11. Cricothyroid
    • Attached to the outer surface of the cricoid and inner surface of the thyroid
    • When contracted, thyroid pulls forward and downward and pulls the cricoid backward, stretching vocal chords
  12. Interarytenoid & Cricoarytenoids
    • Open and close glottis (space between vocal chords)
    • Inter.=pull the two arytenoids together
    • Crico.=lateral closes; posterioir open
  13. Adduction
    Closing of vocal chords
  14. Abduction
    Opening of vocal chords
  15. How do you fix phonation issues?
    • Breath
    • Resonance
    • Phonation issues cannot be fixed by fixing "phonation"
  16. Pitch/Tuning Issues
    Imagination and sensation vocabulary needed to sing correct pitches
  17. Sharp Pitches
    Too little air
  18. Flat Pitches
    Excess breath flow of pressure
  19. 2 Aspects of Phonation
    • How to smoothly transistion
    • How to maintain once you get there
  20. Modal Voice
    • Blending of heavy & light
    • Good modal voice is when you can build on one pitch
  21. Glottal Pop
    • Occurs when vocal chords are closed and then blown apart (on a vowel sound)
    • Solution: begin on air
  22. Insufficient Adduction
    • Breathy, vocal chords are not together
    • Solution: Additional breath & energy; staccato singing, nasal sound
  23. Insufficient Abduction
    • Vocal chords too closed
    • Solution: silent inhale
  24. Excessive Adduction
    Additional breathiness & relaxation
  25. Glottal Release
    • Glottal noise at end os a phrase cause by stopping vocal chords before stopping breath
    • Solution: difficult, release by stopping breath flow rather than closing valve
  26. Good Onset
    Better use of breath
  27. Flexibility
    • Trills, Scales, Melismas, Intervals
    • Balance support with thin, but efficient chord function
  28. Building Flexibility
    • Pair notes
    • Small distance & small rhythmic pattern
    • Use various intervals
  29. Vibrato
    • Speed: 5-7 x/second
    • Width: 1/2 step
    • None: encourage flexibility and support
    • Nervous Vibrato: bleat or tremelo, fast & uneven
  30. Bass Passagio
  31. Alto Passagio
    D-flat at Middle C & the next D-flat 8va
  32. Baritone Passagio
  33. Mezzo Passagio
    E-flat at Middle C and the E-flat 8va
  34. Tenor Passagio
  35. Soprano Passagio
    G-flat at Middle C & the G-flat 8va
  36. Bernoulli Effect
    Air flow through a narrow section of tube creates a suction due to a drop in air pressure and results in increased air speed.
Card Set
Phonation Test
Vocal Pedagogy Test #2 - Phonation