viruses and other harmful agents that can have a negative impact on prenatal development.
formal operational stage?
piaget's 4th and final stage of cognative development, which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.
the mental process by which new objects, events, experiences, and information are incorporated into existing schemes.
the mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, info
short sentences that follow a rigid word order and contain only three or so essential content words
kohlberg's 2nd level of moral reasoning, in which the individual has internalized the standards of others and judges right and wrong in terms of those standards
kohlberg's 1st level of moral reasoning. which moral reasoning is governed by the standards of others rather than the persons own internalized standards of right and wrong, acts are judged as good or bad based on their physical consequences
a type of intelligence comprising verbal ability and accumilated knowledge, which tend to increase over the life span
a type of intelligence comprising abstract reasoning and mental flexiblity, which peak in the early 20's and decline slowly as people age.
positive experiences in life, which may neutralize the effects of many hassles
little stressors, including the irritating demands that can occur daily, that may cause more stress than major life changes do
a conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable alternatives
a cognitave evaluation of a potentialy stressful event to determine wether its effect is positive, irrelivant, or negative
a cognative evaluation of availible resources and options prior to deciding how to deal with a stressor
a conflict arrising when the same choice has both desirable and undesirable features
a single word that functions as a sentence
example of holophrase...
This may mean "I want a cookie"
or "This is a cookie"
an adolescent feels as though everyone is looking at them
exagerated sense of their own uniqueness (adolescents)
in late adulthood, when reviewing your life if you are satisfied you will experience ego integrity
Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying
Denial-1st reaction to news of terminal diagnosis
Anger-acceptance then become angry
Bargaining-Anger and stress managed by thinking in terms of exchanges ("if i pray hard enough", "if I take my meds I will be okay")
Depression-feelings of despair
Acceptance-grieving for loss
Erickson's Psychosocial theory of development
individuals progress through 8 stages, each stage is defined by a conflict that comes from the relationship to their social environment. Each stage must be resoved satisfactory in order to develop healthy.
Type A behavior pattern
sense of urgency
risk factor for heart disease
Type B behavior pattern
without time urgency
hostility of type A pattern
Lazarus' cognitive theory of stress
the stressor is not what causes stress, its the perception of it
After spilling her juice, eyna remarked, "oh no juju down" This is an example of
One year old Tory is trying to drink from a cup for the first time and attempts to suck the liquid out of the cup. Tory's behavior suggests that she is ______ the cup to her nursing schema.
The knowledge that one uses to figure out the buttons and functions of a new microwave oven is called ______.
Larry has just learned that he has a terminal disease. According to Kubler-Ross, what will be his first reaction?
Lars has worked a second job for 2 years to save money for a new car. In making his decision, he has felt that the months of sacrifice will be offset by the enjoyment of the new car. This decision best exemplifies _____ conflicts.
Ross is 15 min away from work when his car begins to chug and lurch. He pulls the vehicle off to the side of the road and the engine dies. Although distressed, he decides he can call his boss on his cell phone and then walk to a nearby service station for help. Ross's reaction is an example of _____.
George is always in a hurry and frequently honks and shouts at other drivers on the road. His co-workers try to avoid irritating him because of the hostile tirades they have to endure when he gets angry. George exhibits behaviors that are cinsistent with the _______.