Methylxanthines/Psychomotor Stimulants

  1. Caffeine
    • Trimethylxanthine found in coffee, tea, and OTC's; an adenosine competative antagonist (inhibits the inhibitor), phosphodiesterase inhibitor (both actions allow increase in cAMP)
    • High doses cause jitteriness, tremors; can exacerbate anxiety and sleep disorders
    • Produces dependence
  2. Theophylline
    • Dimethylxanthine similar to caffeine
    • Greater ratio of peripheral to central effects
  3. Theobromine
    Dimethyxanthine similar to caffeine; found in CHOCOLATE
  4. d-amphetamine (Dexedrine)
    • ADHD, weight control, narcolepsy/ stimulates dopamine and NE release
    • When used for weight control, tolerance develops
    • In ADHD SE include anorexia and insomnia
  5. Cocaine
    • Inhibits DA uptake, but effects very similar to amphetamines
    • Used RARELY in medicine as a local anesthetic; metabolized by plasma esterases
  6. Methylphenidate (Ritalin & Concerta)
    ADHD/ Narcolepsy; Stimulates DA release, effects similar to amphetamines
Card Set
Methylxanthines/Psychomotor Stimulants
caffeine and ADHD