Alcohol/Drug Abuse

  1. alcohol (ethanol)
    • Legal limit for driving while intoxicated is 0.08% in VA
    • Very steep dose effect curve; effect like depressant drugs; withdrawal can result in convulsions and delerium
  2. Naltrexone (ReVia)
    • Relapse prevention
    • Only oral preps are available
  3. Disulfiram (Antabuse)
    • Relapse prevention/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor
    • Acetaldehyde syndrome results from any alcohol use (flushing, N/V)
  4. Benzodiazepeines
    Treatment of alcohol and other CNS depressant drug dependence (cross tolerance with alcohol)
  5. Heroin
    • Synthetic morphine analog
    • 3 times more potent than morphine
  6. Morphine
    • analgesic/ mu opoid agonist
    • extracted from poppy plant
  7. Methadone
    • detox and maintenance/ mu agonist
    • Effective for 24 hours in treating withdrawal after oral administration
  8. Naloxone (Narcan)
    • Opiate OD treatment/ a "pure" mu opiate antagonist
    • very short acting in overdose (often need multiple dosings)
  9. Cocaine
    • inhibits DA uptake
    • short acting; rapid onset after IV or inhalation; abuse can lead to paranoia and psychosis
  10. Amphetamines
    • Includes dexamphetamine and methamphetamine; stimulates DA and NE release
    • Centrally acting sympathomimetic effects; abuse can lead to paranoia and psychosis
  11. Phencyclidine (PCP)
    • Dissociative anesthetic/ NMDA antagonist
    • Produces unique intoxication with motor impairment
  12. Ketamine (Ketalar)
    • Dissociative anesthetic very similar to PCP/ NMDA antagonist
    • Shorter duration of action tham PCP; known as "special K"
  13. LSD
    • Indoleamine hallucinogen/5-HT2 agonist
    • Very potentn/long lasting
  14. Mescaline
    • Substituted phenethylamine hallucinogen/ similar-ish to LSD
    • Less potent than LSD
    • From a cactus
  15. MDMA
    • Substituted phenethylamine hallucinogen/ similar-ish to LSD
    • Has more amphetamine- like effects
  16. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)
    Available as dronabinol for increasing appetitie; active constituent in cannabis
  17. Nitrates
    • Vasodilator; smooth muscle relaxant
    • Use is decreasing since removed from easy availability
  18. Solvents
    • Examples: Toulene, butane, trichoroethane
    • Produce alcohol-like effects; very fast acting
    • Each has its own toxicology; some produce cardiac arrest
  19. Nitrous oxide
    • Gaseous anesthetic
    • Gas at room temperature, produces rapid intoxication
  20. Nicotine
    • Nicotine replacement therapy
    • Available in various forms
  21. Varenicline (Chantix)
    • Smoking cessation
    • Partial nicotinic agonist
    • Pt starts taking it 2 weeks before quitting.
Card Set
Alcohol/Drug Abuse