Most of the information that enters the human memory system is:
B. lost at the sensory memory level
That part of permanent memory that stores general knowledge is referred to as ____ memory.
An advantage of PDP models over sequential models of memory is that PDP models work very well for explaining:
C. complex and simultaneous mental operations
Research by Ebbinghaus and others shows that most of the forgetting of information learned occurs:
D. soon after the learning
When old information makes it difficult to retrieve relatively new information, we say that ____ interference has occurred.
After presentation of a list of words, a group of individuals recalling those words are most likely to:
D. remember the first and last few words in the list the best
Which of the following tasks during encoding would lead to the best performance on a surprise test of memory?
B. deciding whether or not each word referred to you
After attempting to learn to recite the alphabet backward, one would predict on the basis of the serial position curve, that individuals would have the hardest time reciting which of the following groups of letters?
Generally people remember things that they created better than things given to them by others; this is known as the ______ effect.
Encoding specificity refers to the finding that people remember things better when:
D. the cues at retrieval overlap the cues at encoding
The most frequently reported mental imagery is _____ imagery.
In most situations, humans seem to remember ____ better than any other type of stimuli.
Asking people to verbally describe some visual image often leads to
A. poorer memory for the visual image
Prosopagnosia refers to a neurological disorder that inhibits the recognition of:
When a stimulus item is remembered very well when presented right side up but very poorly when presented upside down, this is referred to as a(n) _____ effect.
A stimulus item that shows the effect described in Question 15 is a:
A person in a TOT state is usually able to
B. recall the beginning sound(s) of the target item
Which of the following words is most likely to serve as a successful prime for the target word “candy?”
Priming effects are usually explained by reference to network models employing the concept of:
B. spreading activation
A problem for feature theories of semantic organization has been
D. all of the above
K-lines refer to semantic organization by
The major difference in information storage between humans and computers is that computers store information as presented while humans
A. first interpret presented information
Which of the following questions are more likely to be answered quicker by a human than by a computer?
D. What street did Adam and Eve live on?
A similarity between humans and computers is that both:
A. can perform many tasks at the same time
A very important procedure for improving your memory is to:
D. pay attention
What is DECLARATIVE MEMORY?
a form of long-term memory
What is DISTINCTIVENESS?
one factor influencing memory; items which are distinguishable from other items or which are encoded in a way that makes them distinguishable are better remembered
What is ENCODING SPECIFICITY?
the amount of overlap between cues present both at encoding and at retrieval; more overlap results in better memory
What is EPISODIC MEMORY?
one type of long-term, declarative memory; memory for the events of one's own life
What is the GENERATION EFFECT?
one factor influencing memory; items are remembered better when the person was involved in producing them
What is the INVERSION EFFECT?
the finding that an item is remembered very well when presented right side up or not transformed but poorly when presented upside down or transformed
What are LEVELS OF PROCESSING?
the degree of semantic or deep processing influences retrieval positively
What is LONG-TERM MEMORY?
the repository of all encoded experiences and knowledge
What are MNEMONICS?
special methods designed to improve memory by organizing encoding or retrieval to take advantage of factors which influence memory
What is PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (PDP)?
the processing of information in memory at several different levels or locations and at the same time
What is PRIMING?
the more rapid retrieval of items which are semantically related to an item just presented
What is PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE?
blockage of memory retrieval by related information learned before the desired information was learned
What is PROSOPAGNOSIA?
a neurological disorder which results in deficits in the recognition of faces
What is REPRESSION?
forgetting memories which may cause psychological stress
What is RETROGRADE INTERFERENCE?
blockage of memory retrieval by related information learned after the desired information was learned
What is the SELF-REFERENCE EFFECT?
the finding that items that are referenced to one's self are better remembered
What is SEMANTIC MEMORY?
one type of long-term, declarative memory; memory for general knowledge, such as the meanings of words, not tied to specific life events
What is SENSORY MEMORY?
memory that holds large amounts of sensory information in veridical form for a very brief period of time; most of this information is lost before further processing can commence
What is the SERIAL POSITION CURVE?
the finding that the first and last few items in a list of items are remembered better than items in the middle of the list
What is SPREADING ACTIVATION?
the increased access to items that are semantically related to a presented or a recently processed item
What is STATE-DEPENDENT LEARNING?
the amount of overlap between internal cues present both at encoding and at retrieval; more overlap results in better memory
What is TRACE DECAY?
the loss of unused long-term memories
What is the VON RESTORFF EFFECT?
an example of distinctiveness; items that stand out are better remembered
What is WORKING MEMORY?
a limited capacity pool of resources used for cognitive processes