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  1. Conventions
    a tradition, a dominant style, a popular form—some such elements will be common to several different artworks
  2. Symptomatic meaning:
    the way in which the message reflects a particular set of social values or beliefs characteristic of a particular place and time. It can reflect a certain time’s prevalent notions of social order, class relations, gender roles, and view of race, among others.
  3. Function (motivation):
    Because films are human constructs, we can expect that any one element in a film will have some justification for being there. This justification is the motivation for the element
  4. Motif:
    formal repetitions; any significant repeated element in a film
  5. Segmentation:
    a written outline of the film that breaks it into its major and minor parts, with the parts marked by consecutive numbers or letters.
  6. Criteria for evaluating film:
    o Coherence: often referred to as unity, has traditionally been held to e a positive feature of artworks

    o Intensity of effect: if an artwork is vivid, striking, and emotionally engaging, it may be considered more valuable

    • o Complexity: a complex film engages our interst on many levels, creates a multiplicity of relations among
    • many separate formal elements, and tends to create intriguing patterns of feelings and meanings

    o Originality
  7. Story vs. Plot
    o Story: presumed and inferred events and explicitly present events within the story world; all diegetic information

    o Plot: explicitly present events and added on non-diegetic material; all the things audibly and visibly present in a film
  8. Narrative and its aspects
    Cause and effect> usually the agents of cause and effect are characters. Characters create cause and register effects.
  9. Story duration:
    total time span of explicitly or implicitly referred to in the film
  10. Plot duration:
    since plot chooses parts of the story to show explicitly, the overall time encompassed by the plot is the “plot duration”
  11. Screen duration:
    the length of time which the movie lasts on the screen; the sliced of time taken from the plot duration and shown explicitly
  12. Narration:
    “plot’s way of distributing story information in order to achieve specific effects. Narration is the moment by-moment process that guides us in building the story out of the plot”
  13. Range (restricted vs. unrestricted)
    o Restricted: what one person knows

    o Unrestricted: we know more, we see and hear more, than any of the characters can (omniscient narration)
  14. Depth (objective vs. subjective)
    • o Objective: where a plot confines us wholly to information about what
    • characters say and do: their external behavior

    o Subjective:
  15. Perceptual subjectivity:
    visual or auditory point of view offers a degree of subjectivity
  16. Mental subjectivity:
    we might hear an internal voice reporting the character’s thoughts, or we might see the character’s inner images,representing memory, fantasy, dreams, or hallucinations
  17. Cinematography:
    how something is filmed. In deciding how to film something, the filmmaker has to make choices related to three areas:

    o (1) the photographic aspects of the shot,

    o (2) the framing of the shot, and

    o (3) the duration of the shot
  18. Speed of motion (and the ways this can be manipulated):
    an effect of the relationship between the rate at which the film is shot and the rate at which it is projected; (fps) frames per second, time lapse, slow motion
  19. Focal length and the three types of lenses (what are
    the effects of each lens?):
    distance from the center of the lens to the point of focus on the film

    • o short-focal-length (wide-angle) lens—less than 35mm
    • § exaggerates depth
    • § distorts straight lines lying near the edges of the frame, bulging them outward

    • o medium-focal-length (normal) lens—35mm to 50mm
    • § seeks to avoid noticeable perspective distortion

    • o long-focal length (telephoto) lens—75mm to 250mm or more
    • § distort space laterally
    • § flatten the space along the camera axis
    • § magnifies action at a distance
  20. Depth of field:
    range of distance in front of the lens within which objects appear in sharp focus
  21. Deep focus:
    objects in both the foreground and background are in focus
  22. Racking focus:
    shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another during a shot; the effect on the screen is called rack-focus
  23. Framing:
    the use of edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible on screen
  24. Framing: main aspects (angle, level, height, and
    • o angle of framing: the position of the frame in relation to the subject shown: above it, looking down
    • (a high angle); horizontal, on the same level (a straight-on angle); looking up (a low angle)

    o level framing: the frame can be more or less level—that is, parallel to the horizon. If the frame is tipped to one side or the other, it’s said to be canted.

    o height of framing: the distance of the camera above the ground, regardless of the angle of framing

    o distance of framing: how close/far we appear to be in relation to the figure on the screen
  25. Distance and its measure (extreme long shot, long shot, medium long shot, medium shot, medium close-up, close-up, extreme close-up)
    o extreme long shot: human figure is barely visible

    o long shot: figures are more prominent, but the background still dominates

    o medium long shot: human figure is framed from about the knees up

    o medium shot: frames the human body from the waist up

    o medium close-up: frames the body from the chest up

    o close-up: traditionally the shot showing just the head, hands, feet, or a small object

    o extreme close-up: singles out a portion of the face (often eyes or lips)
  26. Point-of-view shot
    When a shot’s framing prompts us to take it as seen through a character’s eyes, we call it an optically subjective shot, or a point-of-view shot
  27. Mobile framing and types of camera movement:
    refers to the way in which framing is adjusted during the shot through the movement of the camera

    o Pan (panorama) movement: rotates the camera on a vertical axis. The camera as a whole does not move to a new position

    o Tilt movement: rotates the camera on a horizontal axis. It is as if the camera’s head were swiveling up or down

    • o In the tracking or dolly shot: the camera as a whole does change position, traveling in any direction along
    • the ground—forward, background, circularly, diagonally, or from side to side

    o In the crane shot: the camera moves above ground level. Typically, it rises or descends, often thanks to a mechanical arm that lifts and lowers it.
  28. Mise-en-scene:
    refers to all that appears in the film frame such as the setting, lighting, costume, amd make-up, and staging (acting)
  29. Setting:
    • where the action takes place, instead of being a mere
    • background for the action, however, the setting can also have a narrative function

    • o On location/studio
    • o Set-design, color, props
  30. Lighting and its four main features
    quality, direction, source, and color.
  31. Lighting quality:
    refers to the relative intensity of illumination. Hard lighting creates defined shadows, crisp textures, and sharp edges. Soft lighting creates diffused illumination
  32. Light Direction:
    refers to the path of light from its source or sources to the object lit

    • § Frontal lighting: eliminates shadows
    • § Sidelight (also called a crosslight): to sculpt the character’s features
    • § Backlight: comes from behind the subject filmed; tends to create silhouettes
    • § Under lighting: light comes from below the subject
  33. Light Source:
    light also characterized by its source

    § CLASSIC HOLLYWOOD: The backlight comes from behind and above the figure, the key light comes diagonally from the front, and a fill light comes from a position near the camera
  34. Light Color:
    can match motivating light source, can be used to represent a characters emotional/psychological state
  35. Three-point-lighting
    a common arrangement using three directions of light on a scene; from behind the subjects (backlighting), from one bright source (key light), and from a less bright source balancing the key light (fill light)
  36. Key light:
    primary source; providing the dominant illumination and casting the strongest shadows. Most directional light and it usually correspond to the motivating light source in the setting.
  37. Fill light:
    less intense illumination that “fills in” softening or eliminating shadows cast by the key light
  38. High-key lighting
    refers to an overall lighting design that uses fill light and backlight to create low contrast between brighter and darker areas
  39. Low-key lighting:
    creates stronger contrasts and sharper, darker shadows
  40. Screen space:
    balance right and left halves; bilateral symmetry
  41. depth cues:
    suggest that a space has both volume and several distinct planes
  42. Shallow-space
    staging the action in relatively few planes of depth
  43. Deep-space
    an arrangement of mise-en scene elements so that there is a considerable distance between the plane closest to the camera and the one farthest away. any or all of these planes can be in focus.
  44. Documentary
    being provided with factual information that explains or helps us understand “real world” events; creation that provides a certain perspective of the subject matter
  45. Documentary genres
    compilation film, interview documentary, direct-cinema, nature documentary, portrait documentary
  46. compilation film:
    produced by assembling images from archival sources
  47. interview documentary:
    records testimony about events or social movements
  48. direct-cinema:
    characteristically records ongoing event as it happens
  49. portrait documentary:
    centers on scenes from the life of a compelling person
  50. Editing:
    in filmmaking, the task of selecting and joining camera takes. in the finished film, the set of techniques that governs the relations among shots
  51. Dimensions of film editing
    graphic, rhythmic, spatial, temporal
  52. Editing: Graphic Relations
    editing together any two shots permits the interaction, through the similarity and difference, of purely pictorial qualities of the two shots. the four aspects of mise-en-scene and most cinematographic qualities all furnish potential graphic elements
  53. Editing: rhythmic relations
    when the filmmaker adjusts the length of shots in relation to one another
  54. Editing: spatial relation
    Kuleshov Effect; any series of shots that in the absence of an establishing shot prompts the spectator to infer a spatial whole on the basis of seeing only portions of space
  55. Editing: temporal relation
    plot can manipulate story time; order of presentation of events; flash-forward
  56. Graphic match:
    two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements (e.g., color, shape)
  57. Crosscutting:
    editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously
  58. Flashbacks:
    an alteration of story order in which the plot moves back to show events that have taken place earlier than ones already shown
  59. Flash-forward:
    an alteration of story order in which the plot presents moves forward to future events and then returns them to the present
  60. Elliptical editing:
    shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing an ellipsis in plot duration
  61. Continuity editing:
    a system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. relies on matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot.
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