- contains receptors for communcation
- forms intercellular connections
- acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents
- regulates material movement into and out of the cell
What are the 3 components of cytoplasm?
- site of metobolic processes of the cell
- Stores nutrients and dissolved solutes
- Three components:
- - cytosol
- - inclusions
- - organelles
- cell's control center
- controls protein synthesis
- directs the functional and structural characteristics of the cell
- controls all genetic information
- provides support for organelles
- serves as viscous medium through which diffusion occurs
carry out specific metabolic activities of the cell
pores in envelope regulate exchange of materials with the cytoplasm
- openings through the nuclear envelope
- allow for passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (smooth ER)
- interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles; no ribosomes
- Synthesizes lipids
- metabolizes carbohydrates
- detoxifies drugs
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
- synthesizes proteins for secretion
- new proteins for the the plasma membrane and lysosomal enzymes
- transports and stores molecules
- modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for lysosomes, secretion, and plasma membrane.
- inclusion in new plasma membrane, or lysosomal enzyme synthesis
- digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell
- removes old/damaged organelles
- Detoxify harmful substances
- Convert Hydrogren peroxide formed during metabolism to water
- Breaks down fatty acid molecules.
Synethsize most ATP during cellular respiration; "powerhouses of cell"
- Synthesizes protein for:
- 1. use in the cell
- 2. secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane or lysosomes
- Provides structural support
- facilitates cytoplasmic streaming
- organelle and cellular motality
- support cell
- hold organelles in place
- direct organelle movement within cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella
- move chromosomes at cell division
Organizes microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosomes
Move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell surface
Propels sperm cells in human male
Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption and/or secretion
Label this cell (top to bottom, left side first then right)
- 1. Rough ER
- 2. Ribosome
- 3. Smooth ER
- 4. Mitochondria
- 5. Nuclear Pore
- 6. Nucleolus
- 7. Nuclear Membrane
- 8. Golgi Body
- 9. Centriole
- 10. Lysosome
- 11. Cytoplasm
- 12. Plasma Membrane
What are Lymphocytes
- Aid in defense.
- Produce Antibodies to target antigens or invading cells
What are the three basic regions or components in a cell?
- 1. Plasma (cell) membrane
- 2. Cytoplasm
- 3. Nucleus
Types of Membrane Lipids
- 1. Phospholipids
- 2. Cholesterol
- 3. Glycolipids
Protein Specific Functions of Plasma Membrane
- Intercellular attachment
- Anchorage for the cytoskeleton
- Enzyme activity
- Cell-cell recognition
- Signal transduction
What is passive transport?
- Does not require energy
- Materials move from a High to Low concentration.
What is active transport?
- Requires energy to perform action.
- Materials move against a concentration gradient, going from a low to a high concentration.
What is bulk transport?
What is exocytosis?
What is endocytosis?
- Moves large molecules or bulk structures across plasma membrane
- Requires Energy
- Exocytosis - secreted out of the cell, vesicles fuse with plasma membrane.
- Endocytosis - uptake into the cell, materials taken up into cell packaged into vesicles.
What is cytosol?
a viscous, syruplike fluid containing many different dissolved substances such as: ions, nutrients, proteins, carbs, and amino acids.
What are membrane-bound organelles, and examples?
Surrounded by a membrane
- 1. Endoplasmic reticulum
- 2. Golgi Apparatus
- 3. Lysosomes
- 4. Peroxisomes
- 5. Mitochondria
What are Non-Membrane-Bound organelles, and examples?
In direct contact with the cytosol, containing no plasma membrane.
- 1. Ribosomes
- 2. Cytoskeleton
- 3. Centrosomes and centrioles
- 4. Cilia and Flagells
- 5. Microvilli
What happens in Interphase?
- Cell is resting between cell divisions
- Carries out normal activities
What happens in G1 phase?
- Cells Grow
- Replicate new organelles
- Produce proteins for replication and centrioles just prior to cell division
What happens in S Phase
"Synthesis" phase where DNA replicates in preparation to cell division
What happens in G2 phase?
- Centriole replication is complete
- Other organelle production continues
- Enzyme needed for cell division are synthesized.
What happens in Prophase?
- Chromatin become supercoiled to form chromosomes
- Duplicate, identical sister chromatids join together, (region is called centromere)
- Spindle fibers begin to grow
- End is marked by the dissolution of nuclear envelope
What happens in metaphase?
- Chromosomes line up in the middle
- Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of sister chromatids
What happens in Anaphase?
- Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids apart
- Cell starts to show development of dividing
What happens in Telophase?
- Chromosomes begin to uncoil
- Mitotic spindle disappears
- Cell divides
What is apoptosis?
- Programmed cell death.
- "Cell Suicide"