1. when does a secondary oocyte become a ootid?
    after fertilization, but before the sperm and egg nuclear membranes fuse
  2. what happens in maternal inheritance for females?
    both gametes contribute equally to the gamete, but the egg provides the rest of the zygote. if maternal inheritance for males, then the egg will contribute more
  3. What do the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm give rise to?
    • Ectoderm: nervous system, integment
    • Mesoderm: musclar sys, cardio
    • Endoderm: GI tract and respiratory
  4. How does FSH and LH affect male and females?
    FSH and LH are involved in oogenesis and spermatogenesis, but not in forming external genitalia or secondary sex traits.
  5. what are the main hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex?
    cortisol, aldosterone, sex steroids
  6. what happens to the layers in the blastula?
    the inner cell mass develops the embryo and the trophoblast develops into the placenta
  7. What does calcitonin do versus PTH?
    Calcitonin inhibits bone breakdown and increases bone formation. PTH decreases bone formation (increases bone reabsorption).
  8. (T/F) The shorter the sarcomere, the stronger the contraction.
    F. not necessarily true
  9. CCK travel through what and reach what organs?
    CCK travels through the bloodstream and reach both the gall bladder and pancreas.
  10. How does the vasa recta affect the kidney?
    The vasa recta runs alongside the loop of Henle and draw fluid back into circulation. This increases osmolarity.
  11. (T/F) The heart has it's own pacemaker so it doesn't need input from the nervous system.
    T. The SA node.
  12. What is pulse pressure?
    The difference between the systolic and diastolic measurement.
  13. Thyroid hormone derived from what and targets what?
    thyroid hormone derived from tyrosince and targets the nucleus.
  14. Endocrine versus exocrine
    Endocrine glands secrete their products into blood stream. Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts. The liver doesn't function as an endocrine gland.
  15. Non-disjunction is the cause of trisomy. What stage does not affect this?
    Telophase I because it involves daughter cells reformation, not separation.
  16. Mitochondrial diseases are inherited via
    maternal inheritance
  17. What's an exception to Mendelian genetics?
    linkage of genes is an exception to the law of independent assortment.
  18. What is a testcross?
    Heterozygous mated with homozygous recessive
  19. Which types of protein are produced by the ribosomes of the RER
    • membrane-bound
    • integral
    • secreted
  20. Thermodynamically favorable processes increase/decrease entropy?
  21. Which cellular structure is the same whether isolated in a prokaryotic cell or eukaryotic cell?
    plasma membrane
  22. where are gyrases used?
    gyrases are used in prokaryotes to supercoil their circular genome.
  23. Competitive inhibitors do not change V(max) but they do increase K(m)
  24. What is the ploidy of a fertilized egg?
  25. (T/F) Compressing gases warm, expanding gases cool
  26. What are the equations for capacitance?
    C = Q/V = e(A/d)
  27. Strength of intermolecular forces in decreasing order:
    hydroden > dipole-dipole > dipole-induced dipole > induced dipole-induced dipole
  28. The value of Young's modulus is deteremined by the nature of the substance; changin the obj's x-sectional area would have no effect on the material's Young modulus.
  29. The hypothalamus stimulates production of (what?) which in turn causes the anterior pituary gland to secrete (what?) and this increases secretion of (what?)
    • 1. TRH
    • 2. TSH
    • 3. T3 and T4
  30. Calcitonin is a ____________ hormone
  31. What are the normal functions of thyroid hormone?
    increase metabolism, increase resp and heart rate, and increase body temp
  32. Vacuum does not transmit mechanical wave
  33. An object's image lies as far behind a plane mirror as the object is in front of it.
  34. Ideal gas assymes that molecules have negligible volume, they do not experience intermolecular forces, and that molecules do not liquefy at low temperature.
  35. volume flow rate is given by the equation f = Av.
  36. lens equation
    1/i +1/i = 1/f
  37. The pH of a buffer does not change with the addition or removal of water.
  38. Equation for tension:
    T = mg
  39. Solubility of a gas in a liquid increases with increasing pressure.
  40. Only transverse waves can be polarized.
  41. F= keQ/r^2
  42. At constant pressure, the volue drops by a factor of 1/273 for every 1 kelvin drop in temperature.
  43. Doubling the amount of enzyme doubles the number of available active sites, and so doubles the rate of the reaction. Reaction rate is dependent on enzyme concentration.
  44. Alternative splicing can create different versions of a protein within a single cell, or different versions of a protein in different cell types.
  45. Properties of meso molecule:
    • has an internal mirror plane
    • has an even number of chiral centers
    • has an enantiomer that is identical to it
    • does not rotate plane-polarized light
  46. Cones transduce color for the brain, while rods respond to black and white images. There are only three types of cones, and they are specific for different wavelengths of light. no selective filtering.
  47. Stretches at 3320 and 2120 are indicative of terminal acetylene. They are somewhat acidic, thus the acetylene can be deprotonated, and deuterium put in place of the proton.
  48. Heat of combustion is proportional to the internal energy of a molecule.
  49. Steric considerations in the transition state control the rate of a chemical reaction. Rate means you're thinking of kinetics.
  50. Hydrogens do not participate in resonance because they normally form only one bond. Induction depends upon the details of molecular structure, not molecular conformatons.
  51. Nucleophile means it has some degree of a negative charge.
  52. For substitution to be favored over elimination, there must be a primary fragment without beta branching.
  53. Organic compounds are always much more water soluble when they are charged.
  54. Solvent extractions require two solvents that arent soluble in one another.
  55. Carbonyl carbons in ketones are electrophilic and are susceptible to attack by nucleophiles. Therefore, any oxygen atom that attacks a carbonyl carbon must have been nucleophilic or electron-rich in the first place.
  56. The regioselectivity of the formation of a double bond is governed by Zaitsev's rule.
  57. All ammonium salt are soluble.
  58. Lipophilic refers to the intermolecular forces between nonpolar lipids: these are...
    London dispersion forces
  59. Since viscosity depends directly on intermolecular force strength, viscosity should decrease with increasing unsaturation.
  60. The slow step determines the rate and the rate law of the overall equation. The rate law equation contains only the reactants, not the products.
  61. The index of reaction of a medium is ................ to the speed of light through the medium.
    Inversely proportional.
  62. Atmospheric pressure on a mountain several kilometers in altitude would be (more/less) than at sea level.
  63. The only way to change a reaction's equilibrium constant is to change the _________ .
  64. magnification = -i/o
  65. The enzyme that synethizes mRNA is .....
    RNA polymerase II
  66. As with carbocations, more substituted radicals are more easily formed. Therefore, the order of reactivity is expected to be 3 > 2 > 1 > methyl
  67. -CN is a strongly electronegative group by the inductive effect
  68. Facilitated diffusion involves movement of molecules down a gradient with the involvement of a protein.
  69. Formic acid can hydrogren bond with ethanol, and it is of similar size.
  70. Methyl is an ortho/para-director.
  71. Spermatids are the sperm precursors that have completed meiosis but have not yet fully matured. A mature sperm has fully completed meiosis, and this is true of spermatids as well; it is the ova that are frozen in meiosis II until after fertilization.
  72. The alpha helix is a form of secondary prptein structure, with hydrogen bonding backbone.
  73. Structural isomers have the same molecular formula, but different connectivities.
  74. The diaphragm contracts and flattens during inspiration, expanding the chest cavity. The expansion decreses the pressure in the alveoli
  75. The cerebrum controls skeletal muscle contraction, but the cerebellum coordinates it.
  76. Many ______ are required for enzyme activity and are derived from water-soluble vitamins.
  77. Phospholipids are abundant components of the plasma membrane and contain esters of many different fatty acids.
  78. Vaccination relies on an immune response against the antigen
  79. In hydrolysis of an acid chloride, water nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl
  80. Autotrophs use ______ as their carbon source, while heterotrophs use _______ from other organisms.
    • carbon dioxide
    • organix molecules as nutrients
  81. Going down a column in the periodic table, nucleophilicity increases becase larger ions are less tightly solvated.
  82. During contraction, neither myosin nor actin filaments get shorter.
Card Set