The Ag Guide

  1. Chapter 1: Institutional Policies
    • IACUC Composition: 5 members
    • Scientist with experience in Ag research or teaching **ARPAS**
    • Animal, dairy, or poultry scientist
    • Vet
    • Person with non-scientific concerns
    • Non-affiliated

    Animal welfare for GE animals in research regulated by regs/gl of USDA and NIH

    Animal cloning current technique: Somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Livestock Industry Clone Registry: Database of animal clones
  2. Chapter 2:Health Care
    Vet care statements similar to those in AWA and Guide

    • Major surgery definition:
    • “substantial” impairment used in definition, like in Guide but not in AWA

    US National Organic Standards: Must not withhold tx from animals to maintain organic status

    Humane Methods of Slaughter Act: enforced by FSIS
  3. Chapter 3:
    Husbandry, Housing, Biosecurity
    Animal well-being components: Behavioral Patterns, Pathological and Immunological Traits, Physiological and biochemical characteristics, Reproductive and productive performance

    Absence of feed up to 48 hours should not seriously endanger health of normal juveniles/adults

    Air, temperature, water vapor pressure, air velocity most important – ventilation 1ry means to control

    Temp Humidity Index (basis for LWSI):

    • Potential for heat stress: 70-74
    • Alert: 74-79
    • Danger: 79-84
    • Emergency: >84

    • Air speed: <0.25 m/s
    • Ammonia: <10 ppm to 25 ppm (25-50 for birds)
    • Hydrogen Sulfide <10ppm to 50 ppm
    • CO: <150 ppm (50 ppm per OSHA, 8 hr TWA)
    • CO2: <5,000 ppm (per OSHA, 8 hr TWA)
    • Methane: <50,000 ppm
    • Dust: 5 mg/m3 (<5 um); 15 mg/m3 total dust

    • Use enhanced ABSL-3 instead of ABSL-3 Ag when
    • room is 2ry barrier

  4. Chapter 4: Environmental Enrichment

    • Enrichment types:
    • Social, occupational, physical, sensory, nutritional

    Humans can serve as conspecific subs; Mirrors or inanimate objects with animal skin for sheep/goats

    All ag animals are social except the adult boar

    • Nest box most important enrichment for laying hens;
    • Novel objects can increase fear in broilers
  5. Chapter 5: Animal Handling and Transport
    Hearing: Cattle most sensitive at 8,000 Hz.

    Vision: Grazing animals are dichromats (partially color blind); Chickens and turkeys are tetrachromatic

    Livestock have to be unloaded, fed, watered after 28 hours on a vehicle without food or water

    • Cattle ramps:
    • 4” step height, 12” tread width; 2-50 m flight zone
  6. Chapter 6: Beef Cattle
    • Castration before 2-3 months or 230 Kg Dehorning:
    • Not reg in US

    70 lux min light intensity during light periods
  7. Chapter 7: Dairy Cattle
    Newborn dairy cattle: Lower critical temp of 50

    Keep on unpaved dirt in SW and concrete in North

    Underventilation in winter is one of the most serious threats to environment of animal

    Colostrum: 2-3L within 4-5 hours then another 2-3L within 24 hours

    Supernumerary teat removal: Restraint and anesthesia after 3 months

    AVMA opposes tail docking
  8. Chapter 8: Horses
    Black walnut, fresh cedar, cocoa husks, pressure-treated wood causes illness

    Highly susceptible to ionophores

    May be fed directly on floor

    Foals should stand and nurse within 2 hours; Placental retention >3 hours = med emergency

    • Castration can be performed at a few weeks to
    • many years – anesthesia essential at any age
  9. Chapter 9: Poultry
    Birds detect and avoid ammonia <25 ppm

    Larger group size for egg laying hens = less space needed for each bird

    Multitier systems: <2m high, 0.5-1m between, <45 angle of descent

    Ducks need to be shown locations of feeders, drinkers, shelters

    Duck pellet size: 0.4 cm diameter if <2 weeks of age, 0.48 cm if >2 weeks; 0.8 cm length

    Ducklings drink 20% more water than needed for normal growth

    100% of egg laying chickens will use perches at night

    Beak trimming at 10 days of age, remove <50%, lower beak should be longer

    Toe trimming at 1 day of age – not recommended for egg layers

    • Induced molting: Feed withdrawal, changing protein, Ca, Zn, casein, reduced photoperiod
    • Also use diets high in corn gluten, wheat middlings, corn, combo of wheat and corn

    Rendered unconscious at 30% CO2; 60-70% should be used for poults and chicks

    Burdizzo may be used on large birds if unconscious

    • For slaughter, do not suspend more than 90 sec;
    • knife 2x head length for kosher/halal slaughter
  10. Chapter 10: Sheep and Goats
    Artificial shelter and fencing may not be necessary; Goats w/outdoor access: 0.5 m2 per goat

    220 lux recommended; Window area of 0.5 m2 per goat can provide adequate light/ventilation

    Minimum group size of 3

    Transfer of Johne’s, CAE, OPP in colostrum a concern; H.contortus – diagnostic test FAMACHA

    • Tail docking wool breed sheep: Rubber rings, cautery, sx removal, sx removal after emasculator
    • <2 weeks of age
    • Mat increase incidence of rectal and vaginal prolapses

    • Castration: Rubber rings, crushing spermatic cord with emasculator, sx removal of testes
    • 24 hrs– 7 days of age

    • Disbudding/Dehorning:Cautery, sx, freezing, acid paste; Not recommended for sheep
    • <1 mo of age
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