# research methods

 Other names for "tests" assessmenttestmeasureinstrumentscale reliability a test is reliable if the data is consistent over time when the test is repeated Tests of responsibility Test-retest split-test Test-retest when someone is administered the same test over time Split-test Taking parts of a test and comparing those parts to one another Validity Is the test supposed to test what it is supposed to test? Tests of validity content validityconstruct validity predictive validity content validity does the content make sense according to the topic? predictive validity does it predict a difference in behavior? Theory A general statement about the relationship between constructs or events. Hypothesis Formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically derived from the theoryderived from a theory correlational research When: used to investigate relationships between variables How: measure both or all groups involved in studylimit: does not give a cause keywords: relationship, related, linked to, associated Correlation coefficient between -1 to 1 the closer to one the correlation is, the stronger the relationship is positive correlation Both variables travel in the same direction 0-1 (0 to .2= no correlation, .2 to .4= weak correlation, .4 to .6 =moderate correlation, .6 to .8 =strong correlationExample: The more time one spends studying, the better grades that person will recieve on an exam Negative Correlation Both variables that travel in opposite directions -0 to -1 (0 to -.2= no correlation, -.2 to -.4= weak correlation, .-4 to .-6 =moderate correlation, -.6 to -.8 =strong correlationExample: The more time someone spends partying the person is most likely to recive a lower score on an exam Experimental Research When: when you want to draw cause and effect How: manipulate one of the variables under controlled conditions limit: hard to make entirely random and hard to control variables Independent variable The variable in a experiment that is being manipulated causes direct variable Example: Different temperatures may cause subjects to score higher on test ( temperature is independant variable) Dependent variable The outcome that is affected by the independent variable Why you may want more than 1 Independent variable There may be interactions between variables Why you may want more than 1 Dependent variable The Independant variable may have influenced another dependent variable A true experiment A manipulated independent variable while everything else is controlled randomly assigned groups There will be an infinite amount of independent variables if groups aren't randomly assigned Experimental Groups The group that recieves treatment(independent variable) Control Group The group that doesn't get treatment Sampling Bias subjects tested are not chosen by random corrected by random assignment Confounding bias other variables may have affected dependent variablecorrected by randomly assigning groups Placebo effects People belive that treatment actually works corrected by blind study Experimentor effect The experimenter's expectations influence resultscorrected by a double blind study Social desirability effect subject is not comfortable with test or answers on test anonymity or non-self report Significance Test Tests that determine if group averages were found from real effects or just by chance Example: ANOVA, Chi-square, or t-test P-value The number that determines the significance between dependent variables Interpreting P-value n = number of subjects in groupN = total number of subjects in groupP < .05 means that there is a significant difference P > .10 means that there is not a significant difference P between .05 and .10 means that there is a marginally significant. This usually means that you need to get more data and withold judgement Replication When an experiment is done by another researcher. If similar results are found in future experiments then the experiment is seen as significant in terms of a genuine relationship Authorstarvinmarvin623 ID70122 Card Setresearch methods Descriptionresearch methods review Updated2011-03-02T07:09:01Z Show Answers